Safety / Efficacy Of Inhaled Insulin Afrezza

2283 WordsJun 11, 201510 Pages
Safety/Efficacy of Inhaled Insulin AFREZZA Daniel Jo, Pharm D Candidate May 2016 University of Oklahoma College of Pharmacy PPOK/MaxCare rotation June 2015 Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by consistently elevated blood glucose levels resulting from defects in insulin secretion or action, or both. 1 Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with long term organ damage, especially the heart, eyes, nerves, kidneys, and blood vessels. 2 The importance of tight glycemic control has been shown to prevent and/or delay long-term complications of diabetes.3 The success of insulin therapy, however, depends on its physiologic properties as well as on its proper use. Barriers to patient use of subcutaneous insulin include anticipated pain, anxiety, inconvenience, fear of hypoglycemia, and concern about weight gain. Evidence suggests that patients may be reluctant to start insulin when prescribed or to delay starting treatment.4 All patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and many patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) require insulin therapy at some point to adequately manage their disease state.5 Traditional treatment of DM therapy, which ultimately includes subcutaneous injection of insulin, is often met with apprehension among diabetic patients due to the inconvenience and discomfort of injecting oneself. Administration of insulin by methods other than injection has been investigated since the discovery of insulin in the 1920s.6One such
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