Asthma is a “chronic inflammatory disease of the airways” and causes difficulties in breathing due to the widespread narrowing of the bronchial airways1. Asthma can occur in people of all ages and affects approximately 10.2% of Australians (2011-12) 2. Generally asthma is reversible with or without treatment however over time damage may occur3. Therefore it is important for patients to manage their asthma well in order to maintain a healthy and quality lifestyle. One of the most effective treatments used to control asthma is Salbutamol. Salbutamol is a short acting B2 adrenergic agonist and it is mainly used for quick relief or to prevent the onset of asthma3. This essay will explain the physiology of the respiratory system and the effect on the system when a person has asthma. It will also discuss the use of salbutamol as a treatment for asthma.
Salbutamol (also known as albuterol in USA) is one of the most famous short-acting β2 agonists. It has become first line treatment for asthma due to its effectiveness. I met this drug in a dispensing session in the first term and I think is a good example of what we have learnt so far. In this essay I will tell you what I know about this drug.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. It induces a trance-like state while providing pain relief, sedation, and memory loss. Other uses include for chronic pain and for sedation in intensive care. Heart function, breathing, and airway reflexes generally remain functional. Effects typically begin within five minutes when given by injection with the main effects lasting up to 25 minutes.
Asthma control varies over time due to severity and changes in the environment, for example, home, school and or work environments. There are several medications and combinations used to control asthma attacks. The first line of medication are inhaled corticosteroids used to prevent and reduce airway swelling and inhaled long-acting beta agonist used to keep the airways open and relaxed (AAFA, 2015). Examples of long-acting corticosteroids are fluticasone, budesonide, mometasone, beclomethasone, ciclesonide, flunisolide. Examples of LABA medications are salmeterol and formoterol; it is important to remind patients that these medications are not to be used in emergency situations. At times, both medications are used together in a single medication to treat asthma and prevent attacks. Some caution that patients should be aware that when using combination medication, the risk for severe asthma attacks increase (Mayo Clinic, 2015). Examples of combination medications are Advair (fluticasone and salmeterol), Symbicort (budesonide and formoterol), Dulera (mometasone and formoterol) and Breo (fluticasone and
There are a range of different forms varying in relation to the need of the patient. If the patient is in need of quick relief, the physician may prescribe inhaled short-acting beta2-agonists. This medicine acts quickly to relax tight muscles around airways during an asthma attack. Inhaled corticosteroids are preferred for long term asthma control. These are the most effective option for long-term relief of swelling, inflammation and sensitivity. This is not the only long-term control medicine option though. There are others with the same desired goals such as inhaled long-acting beta2-agonists, leukotriene modifiers, theophylline, cromolyn, and omalizumab. These are generally not as effective as inhaled corticosteroids, which are believed to be the main reason for great improvements in asthma management since the early 1980s (“What is Asthma” and Horne). Asthma management is also very dependent on the patient and their knowledge, skills, and confidence in knowing when to take the medication. If taken too late, the patient may still need hospitalization, whereas if taken too often when not needed, the patient may grow immunity to the drug, or become dependent on it
The effect of asthma can range from mild, irregular symptoms causing minor problems for an individual to severe and sudden asthma attacks. The extent of what causes asthma is not well known or fully understood but some common triggers include, cold temperatures, dust mites, cockroaches, pollen, sickness, mould and animal hair. When triggered, the airways in the lungs become inflamed and constricted causing shortness of breath, chest pain and wheezing [R]. Currently, there is no cure for asthma however symptoms can be managed with medication and improved living standards [R]. Asthma symptoms are commonly controlled with the use of inhalers, either preventers (taken to desensitizes airways to triggers) or relievers (provides instant relief by relaxing the muscles) .
Asthma triggers and response to medications does not affect individuals in the same ways. Moreover it is not always simple to manage due to its affectability on people on age, sex and ethnic background (Cockett,2003). However, specialist nurse can achieve a successful outcome by ensuring that management plans are tailored to suit each patients/clients needs.
Asthma is the leading cause of hospital admissions during childhood. Kumar and Robbins give an accurate definition of asthma as “a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that causes recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and cough, particularly at night and/or early in the morning” (489). Asthma is a terrifying disease, especially in children, because of the sudden attacks that could claim lives if not treated immediately and effectively. Despite recent advancements in available drugs and overall therapy, the incidence of childhood asthma is rising (Dolovich 373). In order to effectively treat and eventually prevent the onset of asthma, more effective and economical therapies are necessary; although
Asthma is a respiratory disease that many people deal with every single day. “According to World Health Organization, approximately 180,000 people die from asthma each year.” (Jardins and Burton 187) Most people never think of asthma as a life threatening disease, but it can be crucial. As the number of people with asthma increases, the more likely you are to come in contact with someone who has been diagnosed with this disease. Asthma is a severe breathing problem that has many complications that is dealt with daily like shortness of breath, chronic cough, tightness of the chest and shortness of breath, my main focus is childhood asthma, allergic asthma, and medication to treat asthma.
R.J. is a 15-year-old boy with a history of asthma diagnosed at age 8. His asthma episodes are triggered by exposure to cats and various plant pollens. He has been using his albuterol inhaler 10 to 12 times per day over the last 3 days and is continuing to wheeze. He normally needs his inhaler only occasionally (2 or 3 times per week). He takes no other medications and has no other known medical conditions. Physical examination reveals moderate respiratory distress with a respiratory rate of 32, oximetry 90%, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) 60% of predicted, and expiratory wheezing.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway that impacts a person’s and their family’s quality of life. In people with asthma, their airway becomes constricted with swelling and excessive mucous. This constriction or narrowing of the airway makes it difficult for the person with asthma to breath (Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 2009). If asthma is left uncontrolled, it leads to further wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, tiredness, and stress. (Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 2009).
There are many different ways to treat and manage asthma symptoms. Usually steroids are used to take care of asthma but there are some other treatments too. Bronchodilators are one of those treatments. There are many kinds of bronchodilators and work by opening the airway. A few different bronchodilators are Short-term B2 agonists and Long-term B2 agonists. Short term bronchodilators are what rescue inhalers primarily are. These “provide quick, temporary relief from asthma symptoms or flare-ups” says Gstatic.com Long-term B2 agonists are preventatives to try and not let symptoms arrive in the first place. Steroids and steroidal inhalers are some more short term symptom managers. They work by stimulating hormones in your body to reduce inflammation
Patients with severe asthma should not be given beta blockers, although those with milder symptoms may be able to tolerate these medications. Careful initiation and monitoring is
The nurse must to teach the individual about the side effects of the medications such as for albuterol (nervousness, jitteriness, dry mouth, high blood pressure, and increase heart rate), and prednisone (risk for infection, osteoporosis, weight gain, and etc.). For long term control of occupational asthma the individual has to take this following medication daily such as: inhaled corticosteroids Fluticasone (Flovent Diskus, Flovent HFA), Beclomethasone (Ovar); Leukotriene Antagonist Montelukast (Singulair), Zafirlukast (Accolate), and Zileuton (Zyflo CR); Long-acting beta agonist Salmeterol (Serevent Diskus) and Formoterol (Foradil); Combination inhalers Fluticasone and Salmeterol (Advair Diskus, Advair HFA), Budesonide and Formoterol (Symbicort); and Therophylline (Theo-24, Elixophyllin) (Eccles, Rousseau, Higgins, Thomas, 2015). The nurse must teach the individual about side effects from long term use of the following medications such as Inhaled Corticosteroids (risk for infection, mouth fungus, weight gain, and etc.); Leukotriene modifiers (agitation,
Asthma is a chronic airway disease that can be difficult to manage, resulting in poor outcomes and high costs (Kuhn et al., 2015). It is characterized by episodes of expiratory airflow obstruction, which occurs in response to multiple stimuli or triggers. Asthma is a lifelong disease, and symptoms include wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing. Attacks can be mild, moderate, severe, or even life threatening and limit a person’s way of life (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2011). There is no known cure for asthma, but symptoms can be controlled by avoiding the triggers and taking prescribed medicines that prevent or minimize symptoms.