Their symptoms will consist of bloody diarrhea, nausea, weight loss and abdominal pain. It is transferred the same way as it is in digs; by fecal matter. They mostly occur in children due to hands in mouth and so forth. Also in mainly hot humid areas with very low sanitation anywhere.
The concept of a “carrier” first emerged with typhoid fever with Mary Mallon in 1907. Mary Mallon was a working as a cook in her employer’s household, Charles Henry Warren, in New York. Working as a cook allow the bacteria, Salmonella typhi, to be transmitted to the household members through the food she was handling. George Sober, a sanitary engineer, was brought in to find the cause of illness and had proposed that it was the ingestion of freshwater clams. This was later disproven by the questioning of the infected individuals having denied they had eaten the clams. Sober then moved his suspicions onto Mary Mallon, believing she was spreading the disease as a carrier. This was a new concept at the time and was not readily accepted, especially
This lab experiment was done for the purpose of learning how to determine a gram negative bacterium based on multiple tests learned throughout the semester. My gram negative unknown bacterium given to me was Salmonella typhimurium based off of the following tests; Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSIA), Sulfate Indole Motility (SIM), Methyl Red (MR), Voges-Proskaur (VP), Citrate, Urea Hydrolysis, and Gelatin Hydrolysis. Each test performed gives results such as motility, acid production, fermentation, carbon requirements, or detection of certain coenzymes. With a process of elimination, I determined which bacteria it was not and which bacterium I had, S. typhimurium. The expectation was to master the techniques for each test and utilize the results to determine the unknown bacterium I was given within a two-week period.
Another deadly disease was Consumption, or Tuberculosis which claimed the most young lives in the 19th century. The disease destroyed the lungs and was transmitted by sneezing and coughing by infected people or infected cows. It affected Victorians five to thirty who lived in an urban environment who had contact with an infected person. It causes weight loss, fever, night sweats, and fatigue. Later the person has a persistent cough, chest pain, and coughs up blood. Before it gets really extreme, it can be cured with rest, fresh air, and sunshine (Brown). The victims could live a very long time but they had to live with attacks that could last for years or decades. It allowed those infected to get married, have children, and pass on the disease. Families could suffer from the infection for two, sometimes three generations. Passed from grandparent to parent to child, for much of the century, physicians thought the disease was hereditary, not contagious. It could take years to develop symptoms and only 5-10% who have the bacteria ever develop the disease (Eagan).
During the Holocaust typhus was easily spread. “Typhus is spread by fleas, ticks, mites, lice and when they bite an infected person and then bite a healthy one.” (“What Is Typhus”) The article
Typhoid fever is a dangerous bacterial infection. The only source of the causative agent of typhoid fever is a person sick or carrier. You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink water that have been handled by a person who is shedding Salmonella Typhi or if sewage contaminated with Salmonella Typhi bacteria gets into the water you use to drink or washing fruit. The danger of the patient varies through the disease and this explains of the features of the typhoid fever. Infected often spread pathogen into the environment within fourteen days,
Gastrointestinal diseases are pervasive problem that is caused by ingestion of contaminated foods or water in which an extensive etiological agents known as enteric pathogen are present, . Salmonella is one of the most opportunistic gram negative, facultative anaerobic food borne pathogens that represent a major health problem and a substantial cause of food poisoning. Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) stance as the second most prevalent cause of acute gastroenteritis that affecting one million illnesses in the United States, with 19,000 hospitalizations and 380 deaths. Infection begins with the ingestion of contaminated food or water then characterized by attachment of the bacteria by fimbriae or pili to cells lining the
The symptoms may include fever, the chills, weakness throughout the body, abdominal pain and shock also there can be bleeding and tissue decay most commonly towards the finger and toes as they may appear black
The results showed that foods contaminated by these pathogens “caused 9.4 million illnesses, 55,961 hospitalizations, and 1,351 deaths each year” (p. 12).
Esherichia coli also known as E. coli is a bacterium that lives in your gut. (1). it was founded by Theodore von Esherich in 1888. There are many people that can get the bacteria. Also there are thousands of strands of E.coli. Six E. coli O157 outbreaks were identified during 2007. Four of the outbreaks involved foodborne transmission. (Eshericha Coli). Six Minnesota cases and one Wisconsin case with the same or closely-related PFGE subtype of E. coli O157:H7, and an additional Minnesota case of Shiga-toxin producing E. coli that was not culture-confirmed, attended the Minnesota State Fair in August. All but one of the cases showed cattle or visited the cattle
Polonsky described humans as the essential host and sources for S. Thypi, which can endure many months in water or soil. He also described the viruses is translated by swallowing of water or food that has been contaminated by urinary and fecal contain the bacterium in it. The particular group of individual who are most likely to get infected by typhoid are the ones that purchased infected food ,water ,raw meat ,fruits and vegetables from salesperson in the street and the antiquity of interact with other people that are already infected by the virus ; another factor involved in the possibility of getting the virus is the environment . For example concurrency to water sources, population quantity, rainfall and temperature Polonsky (2012). Polonsky
What key activities and important facts tie each of the individual cases together? Some key facts that tie both cases together are that typhoid was spread by some form of contaminated food by a person (milk, food, water, seafood). In the case of Typhoid Mary, it was spread by her handling the food improperly. She was a carrier, and thus when she did not use good sanitary food preparation skills (like washing of hands), she passed the typhoid along to others. In the second case in Schenectady, New York, water did not seem to play a part in the spread of typhoid. So in both of these cases, the key fats that tie them together is the way
Typhoid fever is an intestinal illness, which can result in great suffering and even death. At first it was commonly confused with other fever causing illnesses until 1869 when William Jenner performed a careful analysis and found differences in the different types of typhus fevers. In this paper, I will discuss the bacteria that causes typhoid fever, discuss the signs, symptoms, method of transmission, past and current epidemics, and whether or not there has been a decrease in outbreaks in the past few years.