Over more than 50 decades there has been multiple earthquakes that have been caused by the activity that takes place beneath and above the surface of the earth. For every earthquake there are various effects and consequences, these are generally not preventable but teachable moments. As we study and explore landforms we learn and better understand how today 's structures came about, what took place decades ago and where do we go from here. Thanks to the technology and inquiring minds we are able to study past events like the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 1964 Alaska earthquake. In comparing these two events we can get an overview of what happened and better prepare ourselves for something like that in the future.
The San Andreas Fault is one of the most widely studied faults in the world. Scientists use an array of methods in collecting data and providing analysis of fault characteristics both past and present. Presently there are many differing hypothesis and models used to describe crustal movements and deformation within the Pacific and North American plate boundary. Historical earthquakes along this fault have proven to be rather large and devastating. This is important since the San Andreas Fault runs along many highly populated areas throughout Northern and Southern California. Through further research and analysis of this fault system scientists hope to solve
The right figure gives a more specific visualization of the Juan de Fuca plate currently been forced to slip under the North American plate in an area known as the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Along the boundary of these two plates, a section has become locked yet they are still moving toward each other. As a result, stress has accumulated for centuries and when that stress relieved, it will cause the largest and most powerful earthquake called a megathrust earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or higher. The last earthquake which was caused by the relieved of this stress with similar magnitude happened in 1700. The scientists were able to determine this date through sediment samples that indicated the coast’s seismic past, taken from the sea floor off the coast of Vancouver Island. Therefore, scientist were able to outline that earthquakes occur every 500 to 1000 years.The risk for a possible megathrust earthquake to happen is increasing and it is coming faster than predicted because the stress hasn’t been released recently and the Juan de Fuca and the North American Plates are constantly moving. Right now, Vancouver Island has been tilted higher and squeezed by a few centimetres eastward every year. In the next 50 years, when the strain released, an earthquake called the “Big One” will rip down the west coast from British Columbia to northern California,
California’s unique geography as a state makes it a very appealing place to call home. From the odd east to west transverse San Gabriel mountain ranges of the Los Angeles Basin, to the bumpy coastal ranges of the Bay Area, any person can find a compatible topographic terrain to their liking. California may seem to be the perfect place to live with its ideal climate and extensive geographic features. However, due to California’s location over the shifting continental plates, coupled with its enormous and also multiple faults, at any time this great state can fall victim to a seismic disaster. After examining evidence from both Rong-Gong Lin’s II Los Angeles Times article of April 18, 2016 and the NOVA videos Killer Quake ( 2006), Earthquake (2007), as well as Geologic Journey II – Episode 3 (The Pacific Rim: Americas) – Part 3 (San Francisco) and The Great San Francisco Earthquake (American Experience ~ 2005), one can take a comparative account of the three major earthquakes of California’s past. Although each earthquake was very devastating on is own; the Great Quake 0f 1906, the Loma Prieta quake of 1989, and the NorthRidge quake of 1994 each amounted to an extensive forfeiture of property and life. Each of these earthquakes created much suffering and loss. It is imperative for each citizen of this great state to understand the damage that a California quake can actually do and be prepared; for the threat of one always looms.
• This earthquake may not have released all of the strain stored in its rocks next to the fault this reveals a potential earthquake in the Santa Cruz Mountains in the near future. The occurrence of the earthquake showed that the Earth did not exhaust all its strain and hence other earthquakes could be expected. However, the dates could not be predicted. The extent of the damage could have been much more devastating for the region, but with the earthquake occurring near the coast this made half of the felt area westward in the Pacific Ocean. The occurrence of aftershocks ten days later reinforces the unpredictability nature and hence makes Geology to be a study that is always evolving. In conclusion, the Earth and the study of cannot be exhausted as every natural occurrence provides a new puzzle to be solved.
It’s been called the sleeping giant. Myths of California breaking off and floating away into the Pacific Ocean. This myth is one of the most popular to this day. Why? Because of a 800 mile long fault that makes it’s way through California called the San Andreas Fault. Beginning when the East Pacific Rise submerged under the North American Plate about 40 miles away from what is now Los Angeles. Spreading northwest and southeast, The San Andreas Fault or SAF gradually grew, and is still growing. The grinding plates, along with earthquakes, to this day are gradually reshaping California, as we know it. In this paper, we will look at the history of The SAF and learn what it is and what it could be capable of doing.
According to the research report, it will cause thousands of people die, towns submerged, buildings and bridges damaged once a huge earthquake and tsunamis happened on the Pacific Northwest area near American coast. And losses will be estimated at over 5 billion dollar US dollars. This shocking article was composed by seismic safety advisory committee in Oregon. According to materials, a super-strong earthquake once happened in A.D. 1700 Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) on the Pacific Northwest coast. There are some experts forecast that another super-huge earthquake will occur in the future. The report has shown that once the earthquake occurs, the regions from North California to British Columbia Coastal region will suffer devastation, cause heavy casualties. Water and electricity shortage issues definitely follow this heavy disaster, meanwhile, communication and heating system and gas supply will definitely broken off in the light of this earthquake. The CSZ is a 1,000 km long dipping fault that stretches from Northern Vancouver Island to Cape Mendocino in northern California. It separates the Juan de Fuca (Juan
According to Townend and Zoback (2004) the San Andreas Fault (SAF) region has been noted for its possession of stress orientations in addition to the lack of a distinct heat flow anomaly at the trace of the fault. These findings indicate that there are average shear tractions that are less than 20-25 MPa in the seismogenic upper crust. Oftentimes, shear tractions measure approximately 5 times greater than in the SAF. Due to the presence of high
The tectonic setting for the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake was in the outermost shell of earth consisting of rigid plates that have been moving for hundreds of millions of years. Two of these moving plates meet in western California; the boundary between them is a zone of faults, the principal one being the San Andreas fault. The Pacific Plate (on the west) slides horizontally northwestward relative to the North American Plate (on the east), causing earthquakes along the San Andreas and associated faults. The San Andreas fault is a transform plate boundary, accommodating horizontal relative motions (usgs.gov).
In recorded history, there have been 151 earthquakes in Nevada that were a magnitude of 3.5 or higher. As previously mentioned, the mountain ranges of Nevada are typically bound on one side or the other by a fault. There are quaternary faults that range in ages from less than 150 years to around 1.8 million years in existence. The property damage in Nevada from earthquakes was .2 million dollars between 1196 and 2014 based on information from department of energy for the state. As we studied in our textbook, earthquakes can by a number of things, such as shifting faults, or volcanic
"Cascadia can make an earthquake almost 30 times more energetic than the San Andreas to start with, and then it generates a tsunami at the same time, which the side-by-side motion of the San Andreas can't do," said Chris Goldfinger, a professor of geophysics at Oregon State University. Usually an earthquake in California lasts 15 to 30 seconds in long but for Cascadia, it may last up to 5 minutes. This reveals that Cascadia is superior when compared to other earthquakes and the dangers are obvious. Also, “The Cascadia earthquake is likely to be followed by aftershocks, which will occur throughout the region and vary in size.” The first major one would have a magnitude of 9.1 and the aftershocks could vary from 8 to an 8.5. Noticing how close the scalings are, there could almost be 7 or 8 waves that have the same devastation as the previous ones and this emphasis the main
My inference is that California is at a very high risk from earthquakes and needs better earthquake safety for buildings and houses. This is because California is located to be a fault line named San Andreas.The type of plate boundary that this fault is on is a transform tectonic plate.This fault line is lined up all around the coast of California and is the sliding boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate.Although.According to an article named the San Andreas fault by David K. Lynch “And despite San Francisco’s legendary 1906 earthquake, The San Andreas Fault does not go through the city. But communities like Desert Hot Springs, San Bernardino, Wrightwood, Palmdale, Daly City, lies squarely on the fault and are sitting
The San Andreas fault line has caused constant development nightmares for large urban areas such as San Francisco as well as the other cities built on top of it. Fault lines are one of the side effects of the earth’s tectonic plates shifting that can result in devastating earthquakes. Some of the most devastating earthquakes in our modern era have occurred along the San Andreas fault line due to a dense population. The most notable and destructive earthquake on the San Andreas fault line occurred in San Francisco in 1906. The reason this earthquake was so deadly was because of its magnitude and the city’s poor planning. This earthquake was a wakeup call for San Francisco and force the city to revolutionize its knowledge on earthquakes and how to protect their city. Today San Francisco is one of the most well prepared cities for an earthquake and has made great discoveries in earthquake safety measures. The 1906 earthquake in San Francisco has drastically changed how the city has developed its zoning and building code policies, and its earthquake research.