Emperor K’ang-hsi was one of the greatest Chinese emperors of all time. Ruling from 1662 to 1722 he was also one of the longest ruling emperors in Chinese history and for that matter the world. K’ang-hsi brought China to long-term stability and relative wealth after years of war and chaos. Jonathan Spence writes from the eyes of K’ang-hsi getting his information from K’ang-hsi’s own writings. Though a little biased towards himself this book still provides important insight into his mind. Emperor of China is divided into six parts; In Motion, Ruling, Thinking, Growing Old, Sons, and Valedictory.
Ever since the Han Dynasty, Confucianism has been a cornerstone in Chinese culture. Established by the scholar Confucius, this belief system focused on achieving a "…perfect society in which all people devoted themselves to fulfilling their roles… (and) all wholeheartedly did what was expected of them." (PMEA, 32) This included all individuals knowing and enacting their responsibilities in order to create a world of harmony. During the Song, Ming, and Qing Dynasties, Confucian principles, were intertwined throughout the Chinese government, culture and everyday lives of subjects. Advancements made during this timeframe allowed Confucianism to develop and grow with the Chinese population, making this belief system a mainstay in Chinese society.
during the Zhou Dynasty, China was experiencing a great deal of political turmoil. A major part of this era was called the Period of the Warring States. It was a time when there were numerous wars that occurred due to the conflict that existed between seven states. (Watkins, 2013) These warring states were the Han, Wu, Zhao, Chu, Qi, Yan and Jin. According to Jerry H. Bentley and Herbert F. Ziegler of the book Traditions and Encounters, “This period forced some people to reflect on the nature of society, and the roles of humans beings within society.” The authors continued saying that it forced others to “identify principles that would restore political and social order.” (Bentley & Ziegler, 2011) The principles of Confucianism were established and followed in order to help the citizens of China to live and govern their communities more efficiently. Through Confucianism, Confucius helped legitimize China’s rule and bring about order in the mist of turmoil. The effects of Confucius’ principles are still seen and felt today in many aspects of modern day Chinese society. Veritably, there were points throughout Chinese history where Confucianism affected almost every aspect of life in China. Confucius has impacted the development of Chinese thought and culture in various ways from education to politics, to familial relationships.
Qin Shi Huang Di is remembered as one of the greatest rulers in Chinese’s history, he has benefited China by many of his creations, but some see him as the emperor who killed millions and burned knowledgable books. Although, he only ruled for 15 years, he successfully united China after centuries of civil war and built an empire that has lasted to this very day, he is known as both a brutal tyrant and a great leader. He created a unified system of weights and measures, writing and currency, but used violence to take control of China which eventually killed many scholars and burnt books to wipe out heresy and brutality which was the basis of his greatest achievements. He started many major structures such as the early structure of the
“Books are the steps towards human progress”. Following standard rhetoric like this, people nowadays would be easily lured into the belief that the formation and circulation of literacy was the result of nature development—a normative and inevitable route of the progress of human society, an official and more efficient way for the transmission of knowledge.Nonetheless, as we examine closely to the history all the way back to the period before the wide broadcast of writing, we are able to see that the writing at its first stage was merely aimed to strengthen the state’s rule as well to build the virtuous images of the state instead of functioning as a major channel of knowledge transmission. More than that, literacy in some circumstances even functioned the role as state formation and creation.
According to Reid, a few of the major “Confucianism” ethos and practices involve ‘Ren’, ‘yi’ and ‘li’ which represents the concept of ‘altruism’ along with clear depiction of the humanness for other individuals (Reid 29-66).
Confucius is one of the first Chinese thinkers who addressed the conflict of political and social order. he was a strong willed man who often did not get along with others. He never realized his ambition to become a powerful minister. Confucius attracted numerous disciples who aspired to political careers. His thought was fundamentally moral, ethical, and political in character. He had his disciples study works of poetry and history made during the Zhou dynasty. He examined the book of Songs, book of History, the Book of Rites, and other works with his students. Literary works of the Zhou dynasty became the core texts of the traditional Chinese education because of Confucius’s influence. There were specific Confucian values indluding ren, li, and xiao. Individuals with ren were courteous, respectful, loyal, and diligent. He said ren is much needed for government
Elliott is a notable researcher of Qing 1644-1911 China who has some expertise in the historical backdrop of its Manchu originators, In Emperor Qianlong: Son of Heaven, Man of the World, Elliott has turned his extensive semantic and chronicled abilities to a life story of the enduring Hongli 1711-1799, who from 1735 until the point when 1795 ruled as Emperor Qianlong, managing a time of amazingly quick social, scholarly, statistic what's more, natural change, Qianlong's mind boggling identity and rule are analyzed once again in Elliott's investigation. There are numerous cases of this with tests of these sonnets by Qianlong himself all through the book and pictures of himself, generally in a purposeful publicity style however. The book gives an awesome short clarification of how Qianlong ruled the country and how he lived in his home life. It points of interest his spouses and the amount he loved them and what he did with them on their many voyages together over the Chinese farmland. It really expounds the amount Qianlong was influenced by the passing of his first spouse and how it may have had an effect on how he led from subsequently.
Confucianism is regarded as one of the primary religions that have profoundly influenced Chinese beliefs and ideologies. While Kongzi, or Confucius, is the founder of Confucianism, he is not the only philosopher who has contributed to such a significant impact on China. Similarly, the Analects of Confucius is not the single text that represents Confucianism. In fact, during different time periods throughout the history, there are a number of eminent representatives of Confucian thoughts, such as Mengzi and Xunzi. Because Confucianism aims at eliminating chaos and maintaining order in a harmonious society , they all agree that the guidance and education of virtuous Confucian pioneers are of extreme importance to achieve this
Confucius created the doctrine that 300 years after his death became a permanent impulse of social life in China, established rules of behaviour not only in the state, but also the family as a social unit.1
Confucianism teaches that each person should accept his or her role in society. According to document number five, Confucianism became the basis of order and respect in China. It was central in governing China. The teachings of Confucius were even studied for civil service exams. Essentially, Confucius believed that younger people should show respect and obey anyone who was older, so respect your
The first point in Confucius 's three main points is the importance of family. Confucius stressed that family is composed of many types of relationships within the family. These relationships are: parent and child, husband and wife, and elder brother and younger brother. The relationship between the elder brother and younger brother is a simple one, but it can easily be overlooked. The relationship between parent and child is one of the ones most emphasized by Confucius. Confucius uses the idea of Filial Piety, the respect of a child for his or her parents, to stress the importance of this relationship. Confucius is also known for the idea that “if the interests of one’s ruler and one’s parents conflicted, one’s support of the parent came first” this is according to the book, page 48. Confucius also has the belief that everyone is born into the world as good. Last but not least, is the relationship between husband and wife. In Lessons for Women by Ban Zhao, Ban Zhao lists many different maxims that led to a
The religion of Confucianism begins, of course, with Confucius whose Chinese name was Kong Qui and who lived from 551 B.C. to 479 B.C. Surprisingly Confucius was merely a low level government worker. He did not exactly view himself as the founder of a school of thought. Regardless, Confucianism is the most influential belief system in Chinese culture. It provides the rules which govern the social behavior of the individual. The basic teachings of Confucius are grounded in the Five Constant Virtues: humanity, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and faithfulness. Confucius went on to define five basic human relations and
Confucianism is one of the main influential ideologies on the Chinese culture. The founder of this religion is Confucius; he was a Chinese teacher. He taught traditional disciplines at that time, and believed that he could change the order of the Chinese society. He has different principals in life. First, Li: “It is the medium within which to talk about the entire body of the mores, or more precisely, have the authentic tradition and reasonable conversations of society” . In other words, li is the social rituals between people and they are divided into different categorized relationships like father and son, filial piety, between brothers, husband and wife; Ruler and subjects, and between friends. The Second principal was Jen, which is humaneness; it describes the inner personality of a person and that people should practice respect to one another. Li and Jen are values that complete each other to create the superior man, according to the Confucius. Also, Confucius believed in the spirits but keeping them at a distance. There are Five Classics and the Four Books are regarded as a reference for Confucianism.