Sample Lit Review on Hypertension

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2. Literature review
This chapter reviews the literature on hypertension and hyperlipidaemia and their relation to risk factors including age, gender, genetics, diet and weight, alcohol, smoking, lack of activity and co-morbidity. It also examines mediating factors including economic factors, stress/personality, medications, lifestyle modifications and complementary therapies including foot reflexology and foot massage. Finally, it reviews outcomes (quality of life) including physiological, psychological and socioeconomic changes.

2.1 Background to the literature review
The occurrence of hypertension, a chronic condition, is increasing in developing countries such as Thailand due to the sociological, political and economic changes and the
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The results showed that patients aged 65 years or over had a higher mean systolic and lower mean diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.001) in the office than those aged less than 65 years. Office mean arterial blood pressures were also higher (p < 0.001) in the older patients. For mean ambulatory blood pressure, older patients had higher mean ambulatory systolic blood pressures than the younger age group, but there were no differences in mean ambulatory diastolic blood pressure between the two groups. Men had higher mean ambulatory diastolic and mean arterial blood


pressures than women; however, women had higher systolic (p < 0.008) and mean arterial office blood pressures than men (Khoury et al 1992).

A similar result was gained in a study of 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 352 healthy Danish subjects aged 20 to 79 years. These participants were divided into groups of 25 to 30 subjects, of each sex, across all age groups. Blood pressure monitoring was measured on the left arm every 15 minutes from 7am to 11pm and every 30 minutes from 11pm to 7am. The study found that systolic blood pressure increased only slightly with age and was significantly higher in men than in women. On the other hand, the diastolic blood pressure increased only slightly with age in both sexes until the 50 to 59 years age group, declined thereafter and was not statistically different between sexes (Wiinberg et al 1995).

Research in animals also

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