Experiment 55 consists of devising a separation and purification scheme for a three component mixture. The overall objective is to isolate in pure form two of the three compounds. This was done using extraction, solubility, crystallization and vacuum filtration. The experiment was carried out two times, both of which were successful.
Abstract: One mixture of two unknown liquid compounds and one mixture of two unknown solid compounds were separated, isolated, purified, and characterized by boiling point. Two liquid unknowns were separated, isolated, and purified via simple distillation. Then, the process of an acid-base extraction and washing were used to separate two unknown compounds into two crude compounds: an organic acid and a neutral organic compound. Each crude compound was purified by recrystallization, resulting in a carboxylic acid (RCO2H) and a pure organic compound (RZ). The resulting mass of the pure carboxylic acid was 1.688g with a percent recovery of 31.80%, the boiling range was 244-245 °C, and its density was 2.0879g/mL. The resulting mass of the pure organic solid was 2.4902g with a percent recovery of 46.91%, the boiling range was 52.0-53.4°C, and its density was 1.5956 g/mL.
The stock solutions were prepared using acetone, sodium nitroprusside and vanillin having 100 ppm as the fixed concentration. From the stock solutions, dilutions have been performed to obtain the different concentrations necessary to assert the detection limit of the test when using either sodium nitroprusside or vanillin. For acetone,
Currently, the environmental pollution is becoming a significant issue which caused by factories waste and nuclear waste. This pollution has increased around the world since the wide application of nuclear energy in 20th century. The harmful substances in factories wastes like toxic materials can dissolve easily in water and this leads to negative effects on lives. There are many resources of these substances such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which contain hydrogen, carbon and chlorine, pesticides, ammonium and dioxins. According to Mole (2015) many researchers found that ammonium and iodide have high levels in many waste water sample in the New York and Arkansas. The most popular process used to remove toxic metals from wastewater
The procedural steps were used but quantities were reduced whilst maintaining the same ratios. 18.8 g of TEOS was dissolved in 13.3 g of TPAOH dropwise for 30 min whilst being stirred continuously. The solution was hydrolysed at 4 °C for 1 hour. A mixture of 1.28 g of TBOT and 4.2 g of IPA were dissolved dropwise for 1 hour in the resulting solution. The solution was hydrolysed further at 4 °C for 1 hour. The volume of the solution was marked on the flask to indicate the initial volume. The solution was heated to 85 °C for 5 hours to remove any alcohol from the solution. The loss in volume was replenished to the initial volume with distilled
Sometimes the soil conditions necessary cannot be achieved in situ. In some situations, the temperature might be too cold for the microbes to work or the soil may be too impenetrable to allow the amendments to spread underground. In these situations, soil might be dug up and cleaned above ground (“ex situ”). The soil can then be heated/stirred/mixed with amendments to improve the surroundings. The mixing of the soil can sometimes cause evaporation of the contaminants before the microbes can consume them. To prevent the contamination of the air from the vapours, the soil can be mixed inside a special tank or building, where the vapours from the evaporation of the chemicals can be accumulated and treated. (EPA, 2015). To purify polluted groundwater in situ, wells can be created by drilling into the ground to pump some of the groundwater into tanks above ground. This is where the water can be mixed with the amendments before it is pumped back underground. The water that was just pumped back into the ground, allows the microbes to bioremediate the rest of the contaminated water that is underground. (EPA,
Practice of soil science includes, but is not limited to investigating and evaluating the interactions between water, soil minerals, plants and other living organisms that are used to prepare soil scientists’ reports for; subsurface ground absorption systems, including infiltration galleries; land application of residuals such as sludge, septage, and other wastes; spray irrigation of wastewater; soil remediation at conventional rates; land application of agricultural products; processing residues, bioremediation, and volatilization; soil erodibility and sedimentation; and identification of hydric soil and redoximorphic features.
If there is any automobile industries and machine repair shops nearby then Petroleum products , PAHs, trichloroethylene, rubber products, metals like chromium , lead , molybdenum and used batteries will be dumped to the soil and the soil will be contaminated due to that.
The study will be performed under the OECD Principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), as reviewed in 1997 (ENV/MC/CHEM (98)17). Regarding to the subject and the design of the study, the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals (OECD Guideline 407, as adopted on 3rd October 2008) will also be followed.
Soil forms an important asset of today’s urban and rural population. Crops growing on fertile soils are important for feeding the millions around the globe. Accidental oil spills from water bodies and industries contaminate the soil in its vicinity. Also, pollution due to pesticides and insecticides have increasingly demanded soil clean up and restoration. Often we lay more emphasis on the role of biotic agents in remediation/ biodegradation but forget the important role that some physical effects have on the remediation of soils. This can be more advantageous and often is more effective in contaminant removal than other chemical or biological processes. The potential for using such an approach is clear in the fact that such methods are currently being used at some Superfund sites throughout the United States. They have been proven
In the optimization of the LC conditions, Postigo, Lopez de Alda, and Barceló tested two different columns and three different mobile-phase compositions with varying flow rates (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mL/min). For SPE elution and LC separation, binary mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and binary mobile phase consisting of methanol were tested. The mobile phase selected for analysis was gradient acetonitrile/water. Its flow rate was 0.3 mL/min.
Collected sample filtered and concentrated 100 times by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Concentration of selected five ECs found 100 µg L−1 each. After 100 min of reaction time (t30W), 75% of all five contaminants were degraded (up to 25 µg L−1 each) with 50
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF SCIENCE (ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY AND POLLUTION CONTROL)