Sand Flies Research Paper

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Sand flies (Diptera: Nematocera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) are a medically important group of insects in Tropical and Sub-tropical regions of the World (Rodani, 1840). They are small hairy yellow or gray colored insects 1.5-4mm in length (Robert, 1994).There are three features that make sand flies easy to recognize: “when at rest, they characteristically hold their wings at an angle above the abdomen; they are hairy; and they typically hop around on the host before settling down to bite (Killick-Kendrick, 1999). The life cycle of sand fly commences with the egg stage, followed by four larval instars, pupa, and adults. Egg and larval dormancy and diapauses have been reported for sand flies (Ready, 2013). The diurnal resting site includes…show more content…
The most important diseases, however, are the leishmaniases (Lainson, 1982). Leishmaniases, are parasitic diseases with a wide range of clinical symptoms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (Kravchenko et al., 2004). The most common form is Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, CL (Akhoundi et al., 2016). Two protozoan species Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica are important agents of CL throughout Pakistan. While Leishmania donovani causes Visceral Leishmaniasis mostly in upper northern regions of Pakistan such as Chitral (Rab et al., 1995 and Tanoli et al., 2005). Transmission occurs during feeding. The leishmania parasites develop into an infective form inside the gut of the sand fly vector and are injected together with saliva into host body during blood feeding (Kato et al., 2006) In the Old world the predominant sand fly vectors of Leishmaniases include P. papatasi, P. duboscqi (Mukhopadhyay et al., 2000), P. longiductus and P. smirnovi (Maroli et al., 2001), P. sergenti (Coleman et al., 2006), P. salehi (Azizi et al., 2012). In Pakistan two species are important i.e. P. papatasi and P. sergenti (Lewis,
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