Sanitation Technolog

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INTRODUCTION TO SANITATION Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems include human and animal excreta, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g., sanitary sewers, sewage treatment, surface runoff management, solid waste management, excreta management), simple technologies (e.g., pit latrines, dry toilets, urine-diverting dry…show more content…
Solids Handling Primary treatment and secondary biological processes concentrate waste organics into a sludge. Methods for processing raw sludge include anaerobic digestion and mechanical dewatering by either belt-filter pressing or centrifugation. Conventional methods of disposal are apllication as a fertilizer or soil conditioner on agricultural land, landfilling in a dedicated disposal site, or codisposal with municipal solid waste. FOOD TECHNOLOGY Food processing Food processing is the transformation of raw ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms. Food processing combines raw food ingredients to produce marketable food products that can be easily prepared and served by the consumer. Food processing typically involves activities such as mincing and macerating, liquefaction, emulsification, and cooking (such as boiling, broiling, frying, or grilling); pickling, pasteurization, and many other kinds of preservation; and canning or other packaging. (Primary-processing such as dicing or slicing, freezing or drying when leading to secondary products are also included.) Benefits of food processing Benefits of food processing include toxin removal, preservation, easing marketing and distribution tasks, and increasing food consistency. In addition, it increases

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