Recognizing the threat Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups posed provided homeland security with the basis which is now important to state and local law enforcement agencies (Sheehan, Michael, 2011). After nearly a decade after the September eleventh, more than twenty terrorist related plots were uncovered by the federal government. As the war against terrorism continues, it has cost America the lives of more than six thousand service members and nearly 1.5 trillion dollars (Ortmeier, P, 2009).
The United States has been in a national state of emergency fighting a war on terrorism since September 11, 2001. The intelligence communities have pursued and tracked down terrorist suspects who pose a direct threat to this country, yet one of the greatest threat to this country is the astronomical number of mass shootings and hate crimes that have occurred in this country post 9/11.
American Policing agencies have significantly changed since September 11, 2001, in a new age of international terrorism. American police departments agencies at all levels are now required to train for an increased amount of time and resources for possible terrorist attacks and to gathering the intelligence necessary to keep with the ongoing threats. Several police agencies have dedicating resources officers prepared for terrorist attacks and who gather information to head off possible risks. Local police often have to prevent, plan, and respond to medical, evacuations and security events which they did not have to in the past. Policing is commonly used to secure community event and increase patrols in worship places and other landmarks that
Before 9/11, law enforcement possessed the primary responsibility for combating terrorism in the United States. Law enforcement relationships and responsibilities have continued to be evaluated and redefined at all levels of government. They will evolve because of the continuous changing nature of terrorist threats, prevention needs and transforming operations and strategies. Terrorist groups continue to advance and pose threats in new ways each day. In the fourteen years since the worst terrorist attack on United States territory, citizens have undoubtedly become more cautious and accustomed to the inconveniences that result from the precautions and added security law enforcement agencies are now having to provide.
Crimes are the result of individuals that do not follow established laws of the land. Criminals can either be individuals or they can be organized groups. The best way for law enforcement to handle the challenges of criminal element is to understand their strategies and then counter them. The purpose of this paper is to review domestic terrorism-related intelligence and how it is related to criminal intelligence. Using criminal intelligence is the first step in dealing with criminal elements. The data is compiled, analyzed, and then sent out in an
The attacks were more localized than most catastrophic disasters, did not overwhelm emergency shelters or food distribution centers, and did not destroy the city infrastructure in either New York or Washington.. However, the 9/11 experience highlights one critical concept. One cannot ignore the importance of maintaining highly trained local emergency responders as well as properly staffed and equipped local emergency response agencies; local first responders are on scene first, handle the vast majority of rescue operations, and cannot be practically replaced by federal responders, especially when disasters strikes without
Although the Department of Homeland Security claims that its law enforcement partners at the local, state and tribal levels are the backbone of our nation’s domestic defense against terrorist attacks, these agencies do not possess the resources to identify and tract potential terrorists.
In 1995, Kevin Jack Riley and Bruce Hoffman published their study Domestic Terrorism: A National Assessment of State and Local Preparedness to examine the issues and problems state and local law enforcement agencies faced while dealing with the threat of terrorism in the United States. More specifically, researchers sought to identify how agencies at those two different levels perceived the terrorist threat in the United States, as well as learning how those agencies manage the threat of terrorism and plan and organize their response to actual incidents (Riley & Hoffman, 1995). In order to collect the data needed, the study was broken down into three separate research phases: (1) a national survey of state and local law enforcement agencies designed to assess how those law enforcement agencies perceive the threat of terrorism in the United States and to identify potential anti- and counter-terrorism programs currently used by those jurisdictions; (2) the selection of ten locations, chosen after completion of survey, as case studies to examine in detail how different jurisdictions have adapted to the threat of terrorism and to explain further the anti- and counter-terrorism programs used by those jurisdictions; and (3) the identification of programs used by state and local law enforcement agencies to counter potential future threats along with the development of a prospective future research agenda (Riley & Hoffman, 1995).
The Patriot Act comprises of communication tools against terrorism such as information sharing across law enforcement agencies in the United States, and new investigative tools used to find and prevent terrorism. These tools provided in this act aid to national security by finding, and terminating terrorists and terrorism conspiracies. Information sharing between Federal agencies, and state and local agencies allows state and local law enforcement to understand what terrorism entails and how to prevent and look for terrorism acts in their communities. In the same sense intelligence officers can discuss anti-terrorism efforts with federal law enforcement. They can now improve the way they coordinate how to prevent terrorism and how to appropriately stop a known plot.
It is important to understand the steps to prepare and counter terrorist tactics because the threat of terrorist attacks are a real possibility. “Despite our security consciousness, if terrorists intend to wreak havoc it will be difficult to stop them.” (FEMA, 1999, P. 7) By identifying and raising awareness of things that may seem out of place, such as unattended packages, bags, or suspicious individuals we will be able to mitigate terrorist threats. Although this is a small step for non-first responders to take, it could make the difference in one life lost, or several lives lost. In Emergency Response to Terrorism: A Self-Study, the FBI reports, “When public safety agencies know of the presence of a device, they have only a 20 percent chance of finding it.” However, if as an aware citizen you see something suspicious you can call first responders and provide details about the device or suspicious behavior.
The terrorist threat is quickly becoming one of the most significant threats to the United States, but more importantly to local communities. Terrorist threats can come from large scale attacks like the 9/11 attacks or from smaller loan wolf threats like the San Bernardino, CA shootings. In either case, local communities, families, and law enforcement (LE) agencies feel the initial impact as well as the immediate and long term fallout. State, local, and tribal governments use the Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment process to detect risks and decide how to tackle the challenges (DHS, 2014, pg. 36). To try to prevent terrorist threats from occurring many local LE agencies have become
Terrorism has been growing in the recent years and first responders are trying to stay ahead of any potential attacks. However when we think of terrorism we often assume the only terrorist that exist are the ones that planned, coordinated, and carried out the 9/11 attacks. That is correct in a sense, but terrorism is vastly more complicated than just carrying out an attack on a location or people. Terrorism can easily be described as a criminal act but with a slightly different motive. There is also significant risk associated with terrorism. First responders should be aware of those risk as they could affect potential outcomes of an event.
This paper focuses on the various law enforcement agencies and their involvement following the horrific terrorist attack on Monday, April 15, 2013, beginning at 2:49pm. Who were these first responders? Were they prepared to handle such a tactical challenge that was forced upon them? Who lead the investigations that lead to the identification of the suspects, the manhunt and ultimately the apprehension of the now found guilty terrorist Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. The involvement and roles of each law enforcement agencies during the investigations will be identified. From the tragic event of April 15th to the verdict of Tsarnaev’s trial, multiple law enforcement agencies consulted and shared information between one another. Collaborations,
Vital to this are on-going threat assessments. Effective threat assessment is the need for abundant, timely and useable intelligence, about potential terrorist sponsors, perpetrators, activities and targets, as well as intelligence to guide our prevention and preparation activities and programs. Despite the transnational nature of many terrorist groups, challenges to integrating foreign intelligence with domestic law enforcement information remains.
For example, terrorists attacks were made in Paris, France in 2015. On Friday November 13, 2015 at 3:20 p.m, guns went off, bombs exploded, and many people killed and wounded. Gunmen and suicide bombers all had hit a concert hall, a major stadium, and restaurants and bars almost all at the same time. It had left 130 people dead, and hundreds wounded, with more than 100 in critical condition. The President of France described this attack as an “act of war” against the Islamic State. Three teams were believed to be behind these attacks. Instantly after the attacks, French police carried out hundreds of raids across the country in search of the suspects. This tragedy hurt, and touched every single heart in the world. The U.S. sent troops over for support, and to help Paris out. Carried throughout all social media, were messages and prayers going towards Paris (Paris Attacks;BBC News, 2015).