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Scapular Muscle Rehabilitation

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Introduction In regards to mobility, the glenohumeral (GH) joint is one of the best the human body has to offer. It allows for the range of motion needed for the activities of daily living that we have all grown accustomed to. In order to execute these motions, however, the shoulder joint needs a stable base of support. This is one of the primary roles of the scapula and its surrounding musculature. When the GH joint is injured, however, scapular muscle-activation, and therefore stability and function, is theoretically altered. Many shoulder rehabilitation programs focus on restoring proper coordination of these muscles, especially those involved with scapular upward-rotation. Until recently, however, there has not been much research supporting the relationship between muscle-activation ratios and shoulder injuries, nor the ability to preferentially activate scapular muscles using rehabilitation exercises. Furthermore, the purpose of this study was to determine if there are differences in muscle-activation ratios between healthy individuals and those with GH injuries, as well as evaluate muscle-activation during particular rehabilitation exercises (Moeller, Huxel Bliven, & Snyder Valier, 2014).

Methods
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They defined one independent variable as group, referring to either healthy control or GH injury. The other independent variable was defined as functional exercise, which consisted of bow and arrow (BA), external rotation with scapular squeeze (ERSS), lawnmower, and robbery. The dependent variables were identified as normalized muscle-activation from the serratus anterior (SA), upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), and lower trapezius (LT). These values were used to calculate ratios of muscle-activation (Moeller, Huxel Bliven, & Snyder Valier,
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