Essay Sch4U Final Exam Study Note

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Chemistry Exam Study Sheet

Organic Chemistry • Study of compounds to which carbon is the principal element. • Carbon is special because it has 4 bonds.

Functional Groups • Organic substances are organized into organic families. • Organic Families – group of organic compounds with common structural features. o Each family has a recognizable physical property and a specific structural arrangement. o Each combination is referred to as a functional group. o Even though many functional groups exist, they essentially consist of only 3 main components. ▪ Carbon- carbon multiple bonds ▪ Single bonds between a carbon atom and a more electronegative atom. ▪ Carbon atom double bonded to an
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o They go through substitution reactions o Hydrogen atoms are easily replaced.

Organic Halides o Group of compounds that include common products such as Freon’s
Naming Organic Halides o Consider the halogen atom as an attachment on the parent hydrocarbon chain. o The halogen name is shortened to either fluros, chloros, bromo, or iodo.

Properties of Organic Halides: o The presence of the halogen atom (ie – Cl) on a hydrocarbon chain makes the molecule polar. o Halogens are more electronegative than carbon and hydrogen o Due to polarity, will have higher boiling points.

Naming Alcohols o The –OH functional group is named – ‘Ol’ o The parent alkane is the longest carbon chain to which an –OH group is attached o When an alcohol contains more than 2 carbon atoms abd more than two –OH groups, a number system is used. o Different isomers have different properties o Poly Alcohols: o Alcohols that contain more than one hydroxyl group. o Suffixes are diol and triol.

Ethers o General formula is R-O-R o There is an oxygen bond to 2 alkyl group which are on either side o Is a bent molecule

Naming ethers o Ether is named by adding any to the prefix of the smaller hydrocarbon group.

Preparing Ethers from Alcohols o Ether are formed when two alcohols

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