Schizophrenia Case Study

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Introduction The patient M. is a 26 year old married female who was brought to the ER by her husband after increased anxiety and depression worsened after a “spiritual attack” that lasted for over four days. While in the ER the patient admitted to hearing multiple distant male and female voices all around her head and outside of her head. She states not being able to make out the message but interprets them to be negative in nature. She told the ER Doc she felt people were trying to harm her and that “people in her life have used things against her.” She felt her extended family may have used witchcraft and “chakra dolls” to cast spells on her. She is cognizant of the strangeness of her claims but believes them to be real…show more content…
Adolescence is a time for great change in this region with development continuing until age 25. The large changes in adolescence might explain why depressed patients often report their teenage years to be the onset of their condition (Porth 1371). This is why early childhood stress or trauma is so detrimental to the developing brain and detrimental to it’s optimal functioning later in life. The neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin is also thought to play a role in depression (Porth 1371). There are decreased levels of these neurotransmitters present in the pre and post synaptic cleft. Dopamine levels have been studied and increased levels of dopamine are found in mania and decreased levels in depression (Porth 1372). In psychotic depression, the most significant change is an abnormality in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, which seems to be over stimulated in the psychotic patient. The HPA axis communicates with the pituitary and is a major regulating system of the brain. Specific to depression it deals with the stress response and triggers the release of cortisol. Depressed patients show an increase of cortisol levels in a normal 24 hr period compared to non-depressed patients (Porth 1372) Lastly many depressed people share sleep wake cycle disturbances. They report having trouble either falling asleep, staying asleep or both. They also don’t seem to fall

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