Schizophrenia: Treatment and Diagnosis Essay

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Schizophrenia: Treatment and Diagnosis

In 1809, physician John Haslam published an account of what he considered “A form of insanity”. Haslam described many symptoms that are relevant to modern day schizophrenia including delusions of grandeur and hallucinations. During the latter part of the nineteenth century, a German psychiatrist named Emil Kraepelin expanded on Haslam’s views and gave a more accurate description of schizophrenia as we know it today. Kraeplin started off by combining terms including different types of insanity under one term: Catatonia, and delusions of grandeur and persecution: paranoia. Kraepelin also separated dementia praecox from manic depressive illness, or bipolar disorder (Barlow,
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The prevalence rate ratio is equal among both genders and is said to be 0.2% to 1.5% (Barlow P.481). Life expectancy is usually lower because of the increased rates of suicide by individuals who have the disorder. In regards to the positive symptoms, these include delusions of grandeur, which is when a person believes they have a special ability or feel as if they are better than everyone else. Delusions are the most commonly experienced symptom. Hallucinations are the second most experienced symptom under positive symptoms (Andreasen P.381). Hallucinations are best described as “The experience of sensory events without any input from the surrounding environment” (Barlow P.473). Hallucinations include people hearing voices telling them things or hearing sounds that only occur to them. Negative symptoms refer to the loss of abilities rather than actual gain. Avolition is the inability for a person to be involved in activities or pursue normal daily functions. Alogia is when a person uses little to no words while talking to someone. An example of this is if a person gives short replies to someone such as “yes” or “no” and refrains from actual conversation. Anhedonia is described as a lack of pleasure or refrain from activities that would normally be pleasurable. Disorganized speech is when a person is trying to present an idea or conversation to someone, and cannot stay coherent and has trouble trying to describing ideas (Andreasen P.382), (Barlow
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