Schools of Management

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During the present century, certain schools of management thought have developed. Each school reflects the problems of the period during which they were popular. Herold Koontz was the first who have attempted to classify the various approaches on the management in the schools of management theory. Based on the writings of some of the scholars and Koontz, the management thoughts, have been classified in several schools of management theory. Below are some of the well-known summarized school of thoughts.
This method was developed in the USA in the early part of the 20th century by Frederick Taylor, building on the earlier work of Henri Fayol.
Taylor also believed that a high division of labour was
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Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, a husband‐and‐wife team, studied job motions. In Frank 's early career as an apprentice bricklayer, he was interested in standardization and method study. He watched bricklayers and saw that some workers were slow and inefficient, while others were very productive. He discovered that each bricklayer used a different set of motions to lay bricks. From his observations, Frank isolated the basic movements necessary to do the job and eliminated unnecessary motions. Workers using these movements raised their output from 1,000 to 2,700 bricks per day. This was the first motion study designed to isolate the best possible method of performing a given job. Later, Frank and his wife Lillian studied job motions using a motion‐picture camera and a split‐second clock. When her husband died at the age of 56, Lillian continued their work.
Thanks to these contributors and others, the basic ideas regarding scientific management developed. They include the following:
• Developing new standard methods for doing each job
• Selecting, training, and developing workers instead of allowing them to choose their own tasks and train themselves
• Developing a spirit of cooperation between workers and management to ensure that work is carried out in accordance with devised procedures
• Dividing work between workers and management in almost equal shares, with each group taking over the work for which it is best fitted
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