Science And Technology Of Designing

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Nanotechnology, which is one of the new technologies, is the science and technology of designing, constructing and creating of novel nano-scale structure, 1nm to 100 nm in size, with huger quality, novel performance properties, along with fewer defects compared with those of the bulk material (Siqueira et al., 2010). An increasing interest from the scientific community to work with materials in nano metric scale has been observed since the introduction of the concept of nanotechnology by Richard Feynman in 1959. The last decade has seen advancement in every side of nanotechnology such as nano particles and powders, nano layers and coats, electrical, optic and mechanical nano devices, and nano structured biological materials (Bhattacharyya et al., 2009). Nanoscale structures permit the control of fundamental properties of materials without changing the materials’ chemical status (Murphy et al., 2011). There are two general ways available to produce nano materials, as shown in the following figure 18. The first way is to start with a bulk material and then break it into smaller pieces using mechanical, chemical or other form of energy (top-down). An opposite approach is to synthesis the material from atomic or molecular species via chemical reactions, allowing for the precursor particles to grow in size (bottom-up). Both approaches can be done in either gas, liquid, supercritical fluids, solid states, or in vacuum (Dastjerdi and Montazer, 2010). Figure 18: Illustration of
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