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Scientifically Based Research Dyslexia

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1 What is scientifically based research, and why it is important?

Scientifically based research, which is also known as evidence-based research, is the practice of collecting evidence in order to answer questions and bring new knowledge to a specific field of study so that effective practices can be implemented. This is important because implementing new practices without the support research can yield ineffective or detrimental results to those involved. Having scientific backing allows scientists to be unbiased and discover causal relationships that are critical to our understanding of the world.

2 How has scientifically based research furthered the understanding of dyslexia and effective instruction for all students?

Scientifically
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• Farrell, Pickering, North, and Schavio (2004) – Looked into MSLE programs in regards to the use of multisensory strategies (a strategy that combines the use of two ore more senses)
• Orton-Gillingham – Developed principles for teaching language-related academic skills. Some Ortan based approaches include Alphabetic Phonics, Project Read, and Wilson Language
• Late 19th century educational psychologists – Promoted theory all senses are involved in learning (multisensory learning)
• Hinshelwood (1917) – First physician to advocate specific instructional approach for written language disorder called “word blindness”
• S.T. Orton (same as above) – First person to report about word blindness in the American medical literature

2 What are common instructional practices of multisensory structured language education (MSLE) that are consistent with research findings?

One common instructional practice of MSLE, consistent with research findings, is teaching individuals in direct instruction in speech-print correspondence. Some other common instructional practices are strategies using active learning such as mnemonic strategies and use of tactile activities to learn
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a. Rhyming: the ability to recognize rhyming and alliterations. Reading nursery rhymes can help young children recognize rhymes; playing alliteration games can help facilitate understanding, creating poems using rhyming, listening to silly songs with alliteration, playing the odd man out game.
b. Matching words by rhyme and alliteration: the ability to match spoken words by rhyme or alliteration. Having children participating in activities that use similar words and a different word to find the “odd-man out.” Other activities can include sorting tasks, creating poems, creating songs, or listening to poems or songs.
c. Partial phoneme segmentation: consciously segmenting words. Activities include pretend word spelling and having students sound out each phoneme in a word.
d. Full phoneme segmentation: Counting out the number of syllables. Speech practice with CVC words. Have students participate in silent reading and use their own ability to sound out words they don’t know with syllable practice. Students can count the number of syllables in a rhyme or poem, they can clap together counting syllables in
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