Scly4 Functionalist Approach to Crime and Deviance

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Functionalist approach to Crime and Deviance Durkheim Functionalism sees society as based on value consensus. Functionalists argue that in order to achieve this solidarity, society has two key mechanisms: socialisation and social control (mechanisms include rewards positive sanctions for conformity, and punishments negative sanctions for deviance) The inevitability of crime Durkheim believes that crime is normal, and argues there are at least two reasons why crime and deviance are found in all societies: not everyone is equally effectively socialised into the shared norms and values, so some individuals will be prone to deviate, and particularly in modern societies, there is a diversity of lifestyles and values Different…show more content…
He argues that an individual’s position in the social structure affects the way they adapt or respond to the strain to anomie. There are 5 different types of adaption: Conformity- individuals accept the culturally approved goals and strive to achieve them legitimately. This is most likely among middle-class individuals who have good opportunities to achieve, but Merton sees it as the typical response of most Americans. Innovations- individuals accept the goal of money success but use ‘new’, illegitimate means such as theft or fraud to achieve it. As we have seen, those at the lower end of the class structure are under greatest pressure to innovate. Ritualism- individuals give up on trying to achieve goals, but have internalised the legitimate means and so they follow the rules for their own sake this is typical of lower- middle class office workers in dead-end routine jobs. Retreatism- individuals reject both the goals and the legitimate means and become dropouts. Merton includes ‘psychotics, outcasts, vagrants, tramps, chronic drunkards and drug addicts’ as examples. Rebellion- individuals reject the existing society’s goals and means, but they replace
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