In the Chemistry of Natural Waters Lab we were to collect a sample of water, ranging from a fountain, stream, bottle, or tap water. After we collected the samples we all did many tests to see what the hardness was for each one. Water hardness is determined by the amount of Calcium and Magnesium in the water.(2) Water that has more Calcium or Magnesium is considered to be harder than water with less of those two elements. When you use soap and detergent, this is where you see water hardness coming into play in everyday life when you are washing things.
Sixth, the stopper for the test tube was put into the test tube, and the test tube was placed into the test tube rack. Seventh, the procedure of measuring the water, testing the pH and labeling the test tube was repeated until all the different brands/types of water were in a test tube and were placed in a test tube rack that was labeled “Warm/Room Environment” by ripping off a piece of tape and writing “Warm/Room Environment” using a pen/pencil and placing it on the test tube rack. Each time a different type/brand of water was measured, the graduated cylinder was wiped dry using a paper towel. Eighth, this process was repeated for the cooler environment. However, these test tubes were instead placed in a rack that was labeled “Cooler Environment.” Ninth, the test tubes that were placed in the test tube rack labeled “Cooler Environment” were placed into a refrigerator, and the test tube rack labeled “Warm/Room Environment” were placed in a room on a table. Tenth, for eight days, the pH of the different waters were tested twice daily to ensure accuracy and to check for any changes in pH in both environments and observations were made
The healthy PH range for an estuary is 7-9. Although the PH level at tingalpa creek was in the healthy range, it is still important to discuss what the consequences would be if the PH was outside the normal range. The pH of water determines the solubility (amount that can be dissolved in the water) and biological availability (amount that can be utilized by aquatic life) of chemical constituents such as nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) and heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, etc.). For example, in addition to affecting how much and what form of phosphorus is most abundant in the water, pH also determines whether aquatic life can use it. In the case of heavy metals, the degree to which they are soluble determines their toxicity. Metals tend to be more toxic at lower pH because they are more soluble. Pollution generated from rain events, such as acid runoff from exposed acid sulphate soils on land, can drain into an estuary and reduce pH values dramatically. Alternatively, biological processes of photosynthesis associated with plants and algae can raise pH levels well above the normal marine range through removal of dissolved carbon dioxide in the waterway. Other factors that influence PH level include source of the water, time of day ,water temperature, geology and soils , discharge of industrial wastes, atmospheric deposition and
Ocean acidification is a big problem in society but hasn’t been given the recognition needed. Before the industrial era began, the average pH at the ocean surface was estimated at 8.2 (slightly basic; 7.0 is neutral). In 2013 the average pH level was 8.1. Although the change may seem insignificant, similar natural shifts have taken 5,000 to 10,000 years but because of societal development this change occurred between 50 to 80 years. It was hypothesised that by the lowering the PH level of the experiment water it will have a decomposing effect on the organisms (shells).Three shells were placed in separate beakers with different levels of pH and were tested for the changes of mass (intervals of 2 to 3 days). Sample 2 of the experiment showed
Water is a simple molecule created by two hydrogen bonds and one oxygen bond. Water’s formula is H2O because there are two hydrogen bonds and there is one oxygen bond. When these three bonds come together, they become strong and unbreakable. Water is very important. It is important to earth and to your body. Water covers 70% of earth’s surface and your body contains about 60% of water. Water is not just a liquid. Water can also be a solid or gas. Ice is water, but in the form of a solid and a gas is water, but in the form of vapor. Water’s state of matter can change easily due to a temperature increase or decrease. Changing water’s state of matter is a physical change, meaning it can be reversible. So, the objective of this lab is to see how temperature can change water’s state of matter.
Osmosis is described as the movement of water molecules (solvent) from high to low concentrations (concentration gradient) via a semipermeable membrane, until equilibrium is established. This movement of water is unquestionably vital in living organisms; for instance, osmoregulation in the human body is what allows homeostasis to take place. Without rigid control over the process of osmosis, cells would die.
The word “aquation” used in the title of the experiment represents how one or more molecules of water are incorporated into another division. This could occur with or without one or more atoms added into the group.4 This process takes place in this experiment where 1,10-phenanthroline is considered as the other division. Water molecules are incorporated into1,10-phenanthroline.
First, a Nitrate- Nitrogen Octa- Slide 2 Bar was inserted into the Octa- Slide 2 Viewer. Second. a test tube was filled to a 5 mL line with sample water. Third, ten drops of Salicylate Ammonia #1 were added. Fourth, the test tube was capped and mixed. Fifth, seven drops of Salicylate Ammonia #2 were added. Sixth, the test tube was capped and mixed again. Seventh, the test tube was placed on a table and had to set for one minute. Eighth, seven drops of Salicylate Ammonia #3. Ninth, it was capped and mixed. Tenth, it was settled for twenty minutes. Eleventh, the test tube was inserted into Octa- Slide 2 Viewer. Twelve, the color sample was matched to a color standard. It was recorded as ppm Ammonia
In scimatics we have been learning how light bends.In class we used a light simulator called phet.It is very important to learn about light because we need light to see and it’s good to know how it works.My hypothesis is when you shine light through objects the refraction will be low if the medium had a high density.
The goal of this lab was to try and understand the effects of osmosis on living cells and to be able to calculate water potential of living cells. This hypothesis was tested because it’s important to know how much water a cell can obtain without bursting. The process that this lab was based on is osmosis, which is a type of diffusion. “Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration”(Anderson). Osmosis is the process of diffusion but involving water moving from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. Osmosis affects cells because if a cell has a low concentration of water, whenever water is absorbed into an organism the water will naturally move into the cells with the least amount of water because
A color code was used to tell what the pH of the water was. For example, if the pH was 6, the pH test paper would turn into the color yellow, and if the pH was 7, the pH test paper would be a light green. Identifying the pH based on color could have slight human error as the pH could actually be 6.8, but when the pH of the water was tested, it could have been seen as a light green instead of a darker yellow green, thus the pH would be identified as 7 instead of the proper 6.8. Another issue that could’ve been caused from human error was that when measuring the amount of water by using a graduated cylinder, it could’ve been measured a slight bit off. Originally, the amount of water that was used for testing was 25mL. However, when measuring the amount of water, the water could’ve been 24.9 mL instead of 25mL due to the miniscus being formed and where the meniscus was believed to be. This would cause the amount of water being tested not the same for all the types of waters. Another issue that could’ve affected the result was that the refrigerator that held the test tubes that were in the cooler environment was frequently