Secure and Insecure Attachment - Paper

1038 Words Sep 26th, 2012 5 Pages

Secure and Insecure Attachment

Elif Ercanli
Johnson County Community Collage

Attachment is a lasting emotional bond between people. According to Berger (2011) it begins before birth, solidifies age, and influences relationships throughout life. The concept of attachment was originally developed by John Bowlby (1969,1973,1988), a British developmentalist influenced by psychoanalytic theory and ethology, the study of animals, a precursor to evolutionary psychology. ( Schore, 2001)Attachment theory is fundamentally a theory of the development of the personality over the lifespan (Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1992)
Stages of Attachment
Birth to 6 weeks: Preattachment. Newborns signal, via crying and body movements, that they
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12 to 18 years New attachment figures. Teenagers explore and make friendships on their own, using their working models of earlier attachments as a base. With more advanced, formal operational thinking (Piaget), physical contact is less important; share ideals and goals are more influential.
18 years on Attachment revisited. Adults develop relationship with others, especially relationships with romantic partners and children, influenced by earlier attachment patterns. Past insecure attachments from childhood can be repaired rather than repeated, although this does not always happen.
According to kallen attachment is classified into four types, labeled A, B, C, and D.
Insecure-avoidant attachment (A)
A patterns of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregivers, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver’s presence, departure, or return.
Secure attachment (B)
A relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver.

Insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment (type C)
A pattern of attachment in which anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when an infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregivers and both resists and seeks contact on reunion.
Disorganized attachment (type D)
A type of attachment that is marked by an infant’s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver’s departure and return.
Types A and C is characterized by fear, anxiety,
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