Permission was obtained from District Chief Educational Officer and authorities of the schools, Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu. Informed consent was translated in Tamil language. After explaining about the purposes and procedure of the study a written consent was taken individually from all participants. Confidentiality was ensured throughout the study.
Part I: The legal considerations would be to inform the participants that there would be no harm or risk to the participants. Since the participants are adolescents the researcher needs to obtain a secure informed consent from the parent or guardian before they participate. The researcher’s ethics are to provide full disclosure to the participants. The researcher should be open and honest to the participants regarding the study. The researcher’s ethical consideration is to protect the privacy of each participant. This can be accomplished by ensuring confidentiality and by having the data stored securely. Also, the researcher should
Probability sampling, also known as random sampling, requires that every member of the study population have an equal opportunity to be chosen as a study subject. For each member of the population to have an equal opportunity to be chosen, the sampling method must select members randomly. Probability sampling allows every facet of the study population to be represented without researcher bias. Four common sampling designs have been developed for selection of a random sample: simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, and systematic sampling (Burns & Grove,
Parental consent is required, and must be in writing, for all evaluations. A parent may revoke consent at any time. A parent has the right to observe any program that is proposed for their child. A parent may also choose to discontinue special education at any point.
Since this study is strictly quantitative, it faces the limitations of not being suited to answer how and why questions. The data analyzed may not be robust enough to explain complex issues, and makes it difficult to understand the context of a phenomenon (Mills and Gay, 2016). The data in this study indicate the number of opportunities at a given school, but gives little information of the quality about these opportunities. For example, multiple schools may offer Advanced Placement (AP) courses, but the quality of the instruction and implementation of these courses could vary significantly across schools. Additionally, the data do not take into account local school policies and practices that differ between cities, districts, and schools. Moreover, accessing secondary data may be difficult – although the data are readily available online on the school level, it may not be possible to gather all the data into one comprehensive file. Also, since the datasets vary in the types of schools included (e.g. some datasets may exclude some charter schools), the process of merging the files may not result in a one hundred
Some researchers may invite parents participate in the research. However, in this case, sometimes children’s response may not be their real thoughts because they may be affected by adults. Researchers may face dilemmas whether to communicate children’s responses to their parents if the child participants told them not to. As a result, researchers need to maintain a shared power and build trust with parents and children. This can ensure both parents and children’s rights to express their willingness, their considerations, and their preferences.
These surveys sample about 15,000 students each year spanning across the three grades under consideration. However, not every question is asked of every student. Certain questions are reserved for certain subsamples.
There are 3000 students at my school. For this experiment, I decided that using a sample size of 40 students will be feasible and fairly representative of the entire population. In order to try and insure that this sample best represents the school, it is important to carefully choose a sampling method which decreases any chance of bias. Originally, I wanted to use a simple random sample which would give everyone in the school an equal chance of being chosen, therefore making the results fair and not directed towards a certain group of individuals. However, getting a hold of a list of all students in the school that I can use to randomly select my sample group was not realistic. So, I decided that a voluntary response sample would be more practice in this situation. Not only does using this sample make the process less time consuming and convenient, but it also solves the problem of not being
One major weakness of the study is the sampling methods which limited both the internal and external validity. First, the children were not randomly selected from the population, jeopardizing external validity. The authors explain that was random selection was not utilized within the study because they drew their sample from the pool of students already participating in the intervention (CPC program) (p. 157). It is understandable that the sample could not be drawn from the population randomly but randomization could have been used to address internal validity.
According to SRCD (2007) Principle three focuses on Parental Consent which is obtain consent from parents or assent from the child stating that they want to be involved in the research. It should be
I agree with the decision that IBR made with regards to waiving the signed consent form since minors cannot give consent (Royse et al., 2016). One of the reasons why I agree with the decision that IBR made is because the risk is minimal. Another decision that the IBR could have made that would not have been appropriate for this research was requiring the written consent for from parents before the children participates in the research due to many parents failing to respond back about the consent form, especially for those children living in a single parent household. Meaning many minority children would be under represented in the study (Royse et al., 2016). In addition, the researcher should be sensitive to the culture of the children (Royse
Current Event: Since random sampling is supposed to give all an equal probability of being selected, if a random sample was taken, it would be expected that slightly more than half of those selected would be female, to reflect the proportion of females to males in the actual population.
Before we discuss random sampling, you need to be clear about the exact meaning of "random." In common speech, it means "anything will do", but the meaning used in statistics is much more precise: a person is chosen at random from a population when every member of that population has the same chance of being sampled. If some people have a higher chance than others, the selection is not random. To maximize accuracy, surveys conducted on scientific principles always use random samples.
I selected three schools among all the schools proposed by my key contacts, using a non probability sampling technique called purposive sampling strategy. The reason I choose purposive sampling is because the bureaucratic process for conducting research in schools is complicated, unless the researcher has an access to the school. Moreover, usually the weather in Jakarta within January and February is quite unfriendly and the traffic is worst, so I have to access the school in the radius of 10 km from my resident.