The purpose of this experiment is to separate a mixture of salicylic acid and naphthalene using extraction, recrystallization and sublimation techniques. Extraction is the separation of compounds from a mixture based on their relative solubilities in different solvents. Sublimation is the process of separation by which a substance transitions from
Abstract: Experiment 55 consists of devising a separation and purification scheme for a three component mixture. The overall objective is to isolate in pure form two of the three compounds. This was done using extraction, solubility, crystallization and vacuum filtration. The experiment was carried out two times, both of which were successful.
Objective: The objective of this experiment is to use acid-base extraction techniques to separate a mixture of organic compounds based on acidity and/or basicity. After the three compounds are separated we will recover them into their salt forms and then purify them by recrystallization and identify them by their melting points.
Kelly Wilinski 21 March 2016 Separation of the Constituents of an Analgesic Preparation: Acid/Base Extraction 15 February 2016 and 29 February 2016 Objective of the Experiment The objective of this extraction experiment was to achieve a comprehensive understanding, as well as master the practice, of the technique of separating various individual components of a compound.
Introduction The purpose of this experiment is to practice common organic laboratory techniques inside the lab to get one oriented to the basic methods of procedure that can be used for later experiments. This experiment involves the separation of benzoic acid from a more crude form, consisting of benzoic acid, methyl orange, a common acid/base indicator, and cellulose, a natural polymer of glucose (Huston, and Liu 17-24). The technique that is used to perform this separation is called extraction. Extraction is a systematic process of separating mixtures of compounds, taking advantage of the affinity differences of compounds to separate them (Padias 128-37). This technique recognizes the principle that “like dissolves in like,” that is,
Distillation Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to perform a simple distillation as well as a fractional distillation and to determine the composition of an unknown solution using fractional distillation. Procedure: First, the simple distillation apparatus was set up. An oil bath was placed on a hot
In this lab, liquid-liquid extraction was performed to isolate a mixture of benzocaine and benzoic acid. 2.0107 grams of the mixture was first weighed out for the trials. When HCl was added to the mixture for the first acid extraction of benzocaine, an emulsion formed during inversion and venting that
Wash (swirl and shake) the organic layer with one 10-mL portion of water and again drain the lower aqueous layer. Transfer the organic layer to a small, dry Erlenmeyer flask by pouring it from the top of the separatory funnel. Dry the crude t-pentyl chloride over 1.01 g of anhydrous calcium chloride until it is clear (see Technique 12, Section 12.9). Swirl the alkyl halide with the drying agent to aid the drying.
Results and Discussion: Main reaction(s) and Mechanism(s): Reaction: Mechanism: Table of Reactants and Once inverted, built-up gas was released by turning the stopcock to its opened and closed positions. This was repeated for about four times in one minute intervals. Then the layers were allowed to settle until a separation between liquids could be observed. Due to the low density of the product, the top layer was to be extracted. The bottom layer was carefully and slowly extracted out of the separatory funnel.
The remaining organic layer was washed with sodium bisulfite and brine. The sodium bisulfite was used to wash away MgOH and neutralize the acid. The solution was dried using anhydrous sodium sulfate and heated until the solvent evaporated. Anhydrous sodium sulfate is a drying agent used to remove water from the mixture. The crude mixture was triturated in petroleum ether. Trituration broke down the crude mixture into a desirable compound that remained insoluble, and impurities, which were soluble in the liquid. Therefore, the impurities were filtered out using petroleum ether. This rinsed away the non-polar byproduct,
As the acid was being added, the mixture was being stirred over a stir plate. Once completed, the reaction mixture was poured from the round bottom flask into a 500 mL separatory funnel and its top (organic) layer was extracted into another beaker. The bottom (aqueous) layer was placed back into the funnel and extracted twice with 50.0 mL of ethyl ether each. The newly extracted layers were combined and dried over magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). The dried solution was the decanted into a beaker to remove the MgSO4 salts and the product solution was collected via Buchner vacuum filtration. The resulting product was transferred into an Erlenmeyer flask with an inverted beaker on top and stored in a drawer.
Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography Lab Report Introduction: Distillation is a method of separating two volatile chemicals on the basis of their differing boiling points. During this lab, students were given 30 mL of an unknown solution containing two colorless chemicals. Because the chemicals may have had a relatively close boiling point, we had to employ a fractional distillation over a simple distillation. By adding a fractionating column between the boiling flask and the condenser, we were able to separate the liquids more efficiently due to the fact that more volatile liquids tend to push towards the top of the fractionating column, thereby leaving the liquid with the lower boiling point towards the bottom. After obtaining the distillates, we utilized a gas chromatograph in order to analyze the volatile substances in the gas phase and determine their composition percentage of the initial solution. Overall, through this lab we were able to enhance our knowledge on the practical utilization of chemical theories, and thus also demonstrated technical fluency involving the equipment.
There are various techniques to separate a mixture of compounds from each other. One of the commonly used way to isolate compounds from a mixture of two compounds is called extraction. This method of extracting two compounds from each other relies on the different solubility of the compounds in two different solvents.
Separating Acids and Neutral Compounds by Solvent Extraction Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to use solvent extraction techniques in order to separate a mixture consisting of a carboxylic acid (p-toulic acid), a phenol (p-tert-butylphenol), and a neutral compound (acetanilide). Extraction is the process of selectively dissolving one or more of the compounds of a mixture into an appropriate solvent, the solution that contains these dissolved compounds is called an extract (Manion, 2004).
������ Equipment, Materials, and Method The equipment used were a jacketed batch reactor beaker, cooling water circulation system, computer, LabPro temperature probe and conductivity probe, mixing stand and magnetic stir bar. The materials used for this reaction were a 0.08M NaOH solution and a 0.1M ethyl acetate solution. A 20% excess Ethyl acetate was used to ensure NaOH was the limiting reactant. NaOH was chosen for the limiting reactant because of its high conductivity relative to Ethyl acetate. The extent of the reaction was monitored by measuring the conductivity throughout the reaction. With NaOH being the limiting reactant, the change in conductivity is more visible, and the termination of the reaction can