Separation Techniques In The Purification Of Organic Compounds Lab Report

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Semester 1 experiment 9 Separation techniques in the purification of Organic Compounds.
Sebastian Watson Group 4 Monday 201743456

Equipment list
• Organic Acid
• Dilute sodium hydroxide solution
• Separating funnel
• Stopper
• Clamp stand
• Dilute hydrochloric acid
• Measuring cylinder
• Glass rod
• Congo red Paper
• Buchner Funnel
• Hotplate
• Beaker
• Melting point apparatus
• Thermometer
• Funnel

Introduction
Solvent extraction is dependent on the two liquids having different polarities so that they do not mix with each other (Example Crude oil and water). When these two liquids are mixed together they form separate layers, these two liquids would therefore be described as immiscible.
A lot of organic acids cannot be dissolved in water although can be dissolved when placed in organic solvents. However, their sodium salts are soluble when mixed with water and insoluble when mixed with organic solvents. This is mostly down to the salts being ionic and the acids are almost completely undissociated. Sodium salts can be formed by the reaction of an organic acid with aqueous sodium hydroxide.
RCOOH + NaOH  RCOO- Na + H2O

Aim
The aim of the experiment was to purify an organic acid and to synthesise crystals of the organic solvent. These crystals would then be used to determine the melting point and to calculate the mass of the sample obtained.
Experimental
20cm3 of organic acid was measured in a measuring cylinder and transferred to the separating funnel. This was

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