The world has come very far with all the dramatic changes we have faced over the years. Wouldn’t you agree? As much change as the world has been through there are still numerous social problems that still exist in society today. Amongst those numerous social problems, sexual orientation and inequality stand out to me. Research from biology, psychology, and sociology is where our understanding of sexual orientation comes from. There are two hypothetical theories researchers have discovered examining the biological basis toward sexual orientation. One concept is the neurohormonal theory, biologist contend that homosexuality is caused by abnormal sex hormone levels in utero. The alternative theory is based on behavioral genetics, determining the source and magnitude of genetic impact on sexual orientation. This theory suggested the concept that gay men were genetically female. Later this theory was proven to be false. Homosexuality was considered as a pathology or mental illness. Not every psychologists agreed with that perspective. A researcher by the name of Havelock Ellis stated that homosexuality was congenital and for that reason it could not be considered as a disease. Sigmund Freud another theorist had the concept that everyone is born bisexual and that either homosexuality or heterosexuality is developed through social and personal experience. Ellis and Freud both concurred that homosexuality was not a mental illness. Despite these researchers’ opinions in 1973,
Many people now believe the reporting of many popular newspapers and magazines report of the "discovery" of a link between a certain gene and homosexuality, but hasn't it been considered a choice for such a long time? Is homosexuality a choice rather than genetic? To answer this question we'll start off by revealing some myths of homosexuality. The next part will explain the difference between a behavioral trait and a genetic trait. Finally I'll end be unveiling the truth behind the "homosexual gene."
What Causes Homosexuality? There are multiple theories people hold on how they believe homosexuality started or is generally caused. However, after multiple studies and ongoing research the likelihood that it is nature, rather than nurture, based is going strong. Although, as of now, there has been no exact consensus among researchers, after examining possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and/or cultural influences, to prove that homosexuality is completely one or the other, but it is usually found that people cannot choose their sexual orientation, but rather only
Homosexuality: Nature or nurture By: Clifnie francois Advance Placement Psychology Mr. Cuetara June 4 2015 Abstract The nature and
Running Head: Scholarly vs. Popular Media Focus on Human Sexuality – Sexual Orientation Scholarly vs. Popular Media Focus on Human Sexuality Sexual Orientation GRIGOR OGANESYAN American Public University Leslie Griffin – CHFD220 Scholarly vs. Popular Media Focus on Human Sexuality – Sexual Orientation Scholar Article: Studies and research performed by biologists, neurologists, psychologists and geneticists, noted are the
A pattern emerges where the scholarly literature exploring this topic is largely focused on males. Reason being is that it appears that males are the sex who are predominantly homosexual in their orientation (LeVay & Baldwin, 2012). However, the sensitivity within the discourse of sexual orientation arises when it is debated upon whether one 's sexual preference is innate at birth, hence a force of nature or biology, or if it is a result of culture, nurture or environmental factors (Emmanuele et al., 2010). Furthermore, an experimental design will be proposed to further examine this topic. Comparing the three chosen studies, it is evident that a biological and endocrinological perspective does account for sexual orientation (Kraemer et al., 2006; Manning et al., 2007; Miller et al., 2008). Of the studies that currently exist on this topic, data shows that prenatal testosterone levels are indicative of sexual orientation (Kraemer et al., 2006; Manning et al., 2007; Miller et al., 2008). This paper addresses a topic that is relevant in today 's society; a topic that has, for the most part, been written off as having any scientific roots (Emmanuele et al., 2010). This paper counters that belief and in reading this essay, it will be evident that biology and endocrinology have a much stronger influence on sexual orientation than previously thought.
Is Homosexuality Biologically Based The scientists’ opinions about the origin of homosexuality differ and neither of them have been proved enough yet. The aim of the present essay is to find out pros and contras for both theories: whether homosexuality is a moral or biological aspect. One of the strongest arguments in
A highly debated issue concerning homosexuality is whether sexual-orientation is biologically determined or if it is a socially learned behavior. One case study done about this topic gathered that “the homosexual desire seems in most cases to be implanted in those who develop an unusually strong attachment for one parent” (Cory 1951:67). This seems to suggest that homosexuality can be influenced by family structure or other sociological elements. On the other side of this argument, there is the belief that people are born either gay or straight. Even though there is no scientific or genetic evidence to prove this, there have been many studies done and most homosexuals interviewed take this view-point. McIntosh states, “[homosexuality] is still commonly seen as a condition characterizing certain persons in the way that birthplace or deformity might characterize them” (1968:182). To support their cause and to fight for acceptance in society, it would be beneficial to convince people that sexual orientation is biologically determined. “Research indicates that people who believe that homosexuality is a choice are more likely to condemn it than are those who believe gays and lesbians are born that way”
Does Homosexuality Have a Biological Basis? Aliyyah Dewji Candidate #: Seminole High School 08/24/15 Word Count: Many scientists have a difficult time understanding homosexuality on the evolutionary aspect. They believe a human beings’ main purpose is reproduction, which makes the sexual relationship between two males a confusing concept for most evolutionary thinkers (McKnight 1). Evolutionary thinkers believe that the less desirable genes are removed from the system when they are not breed as often, but this cannot be said for homosexual males who have been a continuing presence in most societies over numerous generations (McKnight 1). These evolutionary thinkers, like most humans, have a need to place others into
Sexual Tolerance 2 What are some recent changes in law, attitude, or policy regarding sexual tolerance? Attitude of the world today is continuously changing due to policy and procedures of gay marriages, and gays in the military (News batch, July 2014). The current status of society and how we see homosexuality in today’s world is and will always and forever evolving. In addition, the greater social acceptance of homosexuality in the
Selena Hernandez Sociology 105b Kristin Miller March 5, 2017 The Power of Sex Born this Way? Society, sexuality, and the search for the ‘gay’ gene by Simon Copland discusses the actions people are taking in order to find out how sexuality comes to be. For instance, many are looking at science to find “the” answers. Specifically, a study by Simon Levay who is looking for a possibility of a “gay gene” existing, explained, “small differences in the size of certain cells in the brain could influence sexual orientation in men”(Simon Copland). This is one of many studies and claims scientists have expressed to populations of people believing that there must be a gene out there. People are not searching for this “gay gene” in order to plainly
If sexuality is developed at an early stage in a person’s life, then how does homosexuality occur? Homosexuality in Darwin’s selection theory doesn’t even exist. (Roughgarden, 2009, 127) Some say that it’s based on the person’s surrounding environment and influences while others say that it’s purely genetic. There has been substantial evidence that points to both genetic and environmental factors in developing homosexuality, but no one factor that clearly pushes over the top to define the origins of homosexuality. Statistically if a male is straight then there is a 4% percent chance that his brother might be gay, but if the male himself is gay, then the percentage jumps to 22%. (Roughgarden 2009: 247) These statistics simply show that gay males tend to group in families, it doesn’t necessarily point out anything specific about the environment’s effects or the male’s genetic makeup. (Roughgarden, 2009, 247)
Homosexuality is not a 20th century situation but has been in history from the age of ancient Rome, Greece, Egypt, and even China. The attitude toward homosexuality always has been a variable, depending on the social, cultural and morality, or even the political development (Barnecka et al., 2005). Back in
Science is uncovered origins a lot of things over the centuries and the human created much great inventions and even explored the surface of the moon; however, one question still on everyone’s mind and science may have solved one of greatest mysteries yet which is: how did homosexuality and heterosexuality
It has long been debated where our sexual orientation comes from, particularly whether its biological or social forces driving these behaviors. In regards to homosexuality and bisexuals, some have argued that it may be a choice that these individuals are making.(Levay 2012: 41)Some have even said it is a mental disorder that one can recover from, but there is plenty of data that says otherwise.(Levay 2012: 41)(Levay 2012: 65) I believe diverse sexual orientations develop in humans due to sex hormones during fetal life, gene influences, and other effects such as birth order influences. I’ve come to this conclusion based on the narrative provided via Dr. Simon LeVay’s book Gay Straight, and the Reason Why, and the research that has been compiled showing strong influences from a multitude or reasons. I will also be looking at a research paper by Francesca Iemmola and Andrea Camperio Ciani, who looked into genetic factors influencing sexual orientation in men. It is clear there are gender differences between men and women, and this is probably one of the strongest indicators that hormones can affect the outcome of variations in gender traits.