HIV/ AIDS affect African Americans at a higher rate than any other race (White, Asian, and Hispanic). With African Americans making up approximately 13 percent of the U.S. population, in 2014, they made up almost half of all new HIV/AIDS cases; 44 percent. African American men accounted for 73 percent of new HIV/AIDS cases, and of that 43 percent of African American men were heterosexual (CDC 2014). Since heterosexual African American men don’t equate to the larger population of HIV cases as compared to African American men who have sex with men, these heterosexual men are virtually invisible in the theoretical and empirical psychological HIV/AIDS literature (Bowleg, 2004, p.166).
The AIDS epidemic began in the early to mid-1980’s and since it’s recognition in America it has become a very heated and debated topic among health professionals, the gay community, and most of all for the ones that are carrying the virus. The real debate is not over the virus itself but, rather about the infected individuals and whether or not they should be made morally obligated to tell their sexual partners if they are in fact infected. Both sides of the argument make very valid points. From one standpoint you have the gay community that believe in “safer sex ethic”, which keeps their partners in the dark about their overall health status and feel they are not morally obligated to tell their
In today’s world we seem to put aside things that we consider no longer a threat. Well we are wrong to do this, because HIV/AIDS still affects over 5.4 million people that are walking around with this infection or full blown AIDS. They are friends, Criminals, neighbors, and even children attending school, etc. So, why do we think it is ok to not worry about a problem that does not have a cure, but only a life time of meds? Within this qualitative research method, we will explore Sexual risk, there or the Measures, Sexual risk, method, demographics, HIV/AIDS risk and may add other areas as they relate to this study.
People that have AIDS or HIV are more sensitive to sharing their health information than others because it could cost them their job. The people that contract these diseases are subject to scrutiny from the public. Since people automatically think that they are gay or lesbian but they are not the only ones that can get HIV or AIDS. When a person is revealed to have HIV or AIDS, he or she may be immediately discriminated against. HIV and AIDS require lifetime treatment that is very expensive to treat (HHS.gov, 2006). Unauthorized disclosure of a person’s positive HIV or AIDS status can lead to job loss; cancellation of insurance; evictions; and loss of friends and colleagues. The United States has developed a set of standards to keep a person’s HIV or AIDS status confidential as well as their other medical conditions. This is called the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. All information is kept private from anyone except that person a
According to recent statistics from the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 1.2 million individuals in the United States have HIV (about 14 percent of which are unaware of their infection and another 1.1 million have progressed to AIDS. Over the past decade, the number of HIV cases in the US has increased, however, the annual number of cases remains stable at about 50, 000 new cases per year. Within these estimates, certain groups tend to carry the burden of these disease, particularly the gay, bisexual, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and among race/ethnic groups, Blacks/African American males remain disproportionately affected. (CDC)
With the help of government programs such as the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) as well as multiple other methods of sociological research and social justice work, there have been shifts toward better understanding this disease, those which are living with it, and the societal impact one’s own prejudices can make toward an individual living with AIDS. However, discrepancies still exist within how to properly educate others on the disease, how to recognize it as a disability within the context of our society, and how we must reconcile stigmas that play a role in plaguing any sort of positive conversation on the topic. With well-informed citizens on the issues of HIV and AIDS patients, not only can we reduce the stigma associated with the illness, but also work toward medical advancements that assist those living with HIV in a nondiscriminatory manner.
Twenty years ago, a person who has contracted Human Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, would be ostracized, labeled as a homosexual, and was likely to be banned from public places such as pools and school. The lifestyle was undesirable, and the lack of education on the subject lead many people to start and believe asinine rumors about the virus and its transmission. On top of this the carrier must also take upwards of twenty pills a day to hopefully prevent the growth of HIV, and eventually progressing into AIDS. HIV doesn’t just affect Latinos, African Americans, or gay, but every single person.
Thirdly, If one has an STD and its publicly known, that individual's social status is degraded and negatively affected. In society as a whole concealing an STD creates a false sense of security and attempts to preserve a faulty self image. Along with merely keeping an STD a secret many are too embarrassed to even get tested after unprotected sex with a mentality that what they do not know will not hurt them. This alone has a major sociological implication as it reinforces a negative social construct and creates a poor symbolic representation of STD testing to displeasure rather than emotional relief. In order to influence the proper usage of regular testing after practicing unsafe sex it must be shown that the alternative leads to social distress in that untested individual live their days without knowledge of major health issues where untested STDs cannot be treated causing visual displeasure such as unexplained skin lesions that may influence one to be self conscious progressing to sickness and self
HIV is highly prevalent among the United States population, primarily affecting African Americans of all economic levels and age groups. HIV is transmissible through sexual contact and damages the immune system as it interferes with the individual’s capability to fight off any infections or illnesses. Health inequalities that greatly affect the high rates of HIV include but are not limited to: higher rates of poverty, lack of awareness, intercourse within the same sex, having anxiety towards getting tested for STD’s or HIV, as well as being fearful of “coming out”. Local, state, and nationwide organizations are designed to inform and provide assistance to those who have been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. S.A.A.F. (Southern Arizona AIDS Foundation)
Various studies show evidence that link the relationship between social determinants of health and the risk for HIV. Interrelated social determinants of health can create a context of vulnerability and risk for HIV. It is very important to be able to recognize the interrelation components of HIV risk in order determine the HIV prevention response that is the most effective. For instance, research shows that HIV rates are significantly higher in Black men who have sex with men (MSM) than for MSM of other races. These rates, which are very disproportionate, are not attributable to a higher frequency of sexual risk behaviors. To appropriately address risk for MSM of different races, it is imperative to understand the process of disease transmission among these populations, in other words, the social determinants of health that are involved, such as access to healthcare (CHLA, 2012).
Did you know straight black men enjoy having sex with other straight black men, but do not consider themselves anything but heterosexual males? In today’s world, even “back in the day”, which can be considered before 2004 when this tell-all novel, On the Downlow: A Journey Into the Lives of Straight Black Men Who Sleep With Men by J.L. King, Karen Hunter and E. Lynn Harris was written, takes the reader on an actual journey into a world someone would least expect. With everyone we have in our life, our neighbors, close family, distant family, friends, and strangers we see everyday, we still do not know some of the most soul defining things about them. As society grows into this new world of acceptance, friends are bound to share their interests with others they know that are not interested in the subject, but also knowing they will still be accepted. It took until 2016, to finally legalize gay marriage, yet there are still the many people who are completely disgusted with it. And to think just 60 short years ago the KKK was still a popular thing. The point being, in the 80s-90s, around the time of most of the occurrences in this novel, a straight black male is not going to broadcast about his sexual encounters with other men as freely as it could potentially be. Thus, being the biggest issue for the spread of HIV in the country.
Currently in South Africa there are 5.26 million people living with HIV. This means that 10% of the South African population is directly affected by the virus and requires us to ensure clear guidelines are in place for the management of HIV (Statistics South Africa, 2013).
In the last three decades HIV/ AIDS has become the one of the most notorious and widely spread diseases in the modern world. Its discovery in the late seventies prompted worldwide concern. The one thing that has become the most bothersome thing about the HIV/ AIDS epidemic is prevention. Prevention or stopping the transmission of the diseases is hindered by factors such as: denial or non-acceptance by infected persons, unsafe sex, and non-disclosure by infected persons to their at risk sexual partner(s). According to Alghazo, Upton, and Cioe (2011):
The first cases of AIDS that were reported in the United States began in the early 1980s. Today, more than 1.1 million people are living with HIV. In response to this HIV epidemic, at least 35 states have implemented HIV-specific criminal laws that penalize HIV-positive people for exposing others to the virus. These laws impose criminal penalties to HIV positive people that knowingly and potentially expose others to the virus. The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act, also known as the CARE Act, provides states with funds for AIDS treatment and care. In 1990, the CARE Act required every state to certify that its “criminal laws were adequate to prosecute any HIV-infected individual who knowingly exposed another person to HIV.” Criminal laws regarding potential HIV exposure vary largely from state to state. Some federal legislation addresses the criminal penalties for intentional exposure such as through blood donation. CDC and Department of Justice researches found that, “ by 2011, a total of 67 laws explicitly focused on persons living with HIV had been enacted in 33 states… In 24 states, laws require persons who are aware that they have HIV disclose their status to sexual partners and 14 states require disclosure to needle-sharing partners.” The criminal laws vary as to what behaviors are criminalized or result in additional penalties. The criminal statutes regarding intentional exposure to AIDS for Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Alabama ,Georgia, and
According to NATIONAL SURVEY OF TEENS AND YOUNG ADULTS ON HIV/AIDS, “There are more than 1.1 million people in the United States living with HIV today, more than at any time in the history of the epidemic. Young people account for two in five new infections in the U.S., and minorities and gay men have been disproportionately affected. To better understand the views of young people in the U.S. on HIV/AIDS at this critical juncture in the epidemic, the Kaiser Family Foundation contracted with the research firm GfK in the fall of 2012 to conduct a national survey of 1,437 teens and young adults ages 15 through 24.( Kaiser Family Foundation 2012)” Nowadays, the age of maturity starts at an early age. From that point, they enter a world full of sexual desires that is apart of being human. This is why it is important for the parent(s) to be