Short Essay on Coalition Governments in India

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India won her independence in 1947 and for winning this independence Congress, as a political party, played the predominant role.

The leaders of the Congress party, then, were great leaders — stalwarts — really dedicated to the cause and to the party which they served. Mahatma Gandhi was the undisputed leader and there were leaders of such caliber as Jawahar Lai Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, C. Rajagopalacharya, Pattabhi Sitaramayya, Sarojini Naidu, Subhash Chandra Bose and a host of others of all castes and all creeds.

Among Muslims, there were Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, Abul Kalam Azad, Rafi Ahmed Kidwai and among the lower castes — lower castes as then was called — Kamraj in South and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. Nobody
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There had started a gradual decline in the overall governance of the country and the worst ever shock was received by the country in the Chinese aggression in 1962 in which India had to suffer a great humiliation for which Krishna Menon, as the Defense Minister was largely responsible.

Further on, on the economic front also, the government in power failed to remove the disparities between the rich and the poor, rather the disparities increased, and there started a voice being raised regarding the backward classes — who were regarded as economically backward — and a further class of ‘Other Backward Classes’, other than the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes came into being and Chaudhary Charan Singh, otherwise and originally a Congressman became the leader and the champion of the Backward classes.

During the regime of Indira Gandhi, politics had declined to manipulations and maneuverings to remain in power and the mobilisation of money and muscle power and the media, the law interpreting authorities and the educational system — all these were attempted to be managed in her favour.

Just after gaining independence, Mahatma Gandhi had suggested that congress as a political party should be disbanded. That of course, was not done but under Indira Gandhi a vertical rupture took place in the party with a number of old stalwarts deserting the party, forming into Congress (O) under Nijalingappa and Indira Gandhi formed her own group and this was named as Congress (I) of
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