Outline and evaluate research in to the duration, capacity and encoding information in short term memory.
“We remember what we understand; we understand only what we pay attention to; we pay attention to what we want,” is a famous memory quote stated by an actor, Edward Bolles. Memory is a broad term that reflects different processing abilities on how humans encode, store and retrieves information. There are numerous domains in the human’s memory ability with the storage and retrieval of short-term and long-term information. For many centuries, theorist has tested recall and recognition capabilities on the human’s memory functions. Memory retention is our ability to retain experiences based on the mental process, through the organization of information through meaning, where relations between new information is associated with the previously stored
Short term memory refers to a memory system that stores a limited amount of information in conscious awareness for a brief period of time, (McLeod, 2007). Short term memory is integral to cognitive activities such as reading, comprehension & problem solving & language as without it we would be unable to recall the beginning of a sentence by the time we reach the end of it, nor e.g. perform simple mental mathematical calculations (Hedden,et al, 2004). Interestingly because language , reading and problem solving occur sequentially (Hedden,et al, 2004) , information stored in short term memory is stored and retrieved sequentially.( McLeod, 2007) for example, when asked to recall the 3rd digit in a numeric sequence, one would go through the sequence in the order that it was heard in order to retrieve the 3rd digit in a numerical sequence, one would go through the sequence in the order that it was heard to retrieve the 3rd digit.
1 Background The hypothesis that remembering should be viewed as reconstructive originates from an important book by Sir Frederic Barlett (1932). Barlett compared the two forms of memory – reproductive (remembering a phone number) and reconstructive (remembering sixth grade) and declared that the second was a more standard use of memory outside laboratory and educational circumstances. He argued that
Memory span is a measure of short term memory and its capacity through the use of a list. Participants are asked to review a list of items, retain, and immediately recall as accurate as possible. The list may be conducted with a random list of numbers, words, or letters since these items may influence differently amongst each participant. The list is also varied in item length to test in which particular length the participant is subject to make the least of errors and determine their memory span. The average short-term memory capacity is ranged
The results indicated Mayra’s ability to process information that was being held within short-term memory was within the Above Average range (Working Memory standard score = 113). Mayra’s performance of the subtest Recall of Digits backward (T-Score = 60) was better than her performance on the Recall of Sequential Order subtest (T-Score = 55). Both tasks required Mayra to listen to a list of verbally presented words and/or numbers. She was required to hold the list in short-term memory while working on the list and re-ordering the words/numbers. Recall of Digits Backward was presented verbally. On Recall of Digits Backward, Mayra used an interesting strategy to successfully recall the numbers. When she struggled to remember the order of the numbers, she would verbally recall the list in the initial order and go back and say them in the required, backward form. On the Recall of Sequential Order subtest, the examiner presented the lists of body parts verbally. Mayra was required to encode the presented information and store it in her short-term memory. Then, she needed to mentally manipulate the encoded information to produce the body parts in a specific order. The ordering of the information required Mayra to visualize the body parts in sequential order from head to toe (e.g., elbow, foot, shoulder → shoulder, elbow, foot). Most
Individuals of these age groups would use the rehearsal cognitive strategies to be able to remember information for a short time. An example of a child using the rehearsal cognitive strategies would be repeating and spelling their spelling words for their spelling test. An another example is when youth of this age group repeat their multiplication to memorize the answer. An example of an adolescence using the rehearsal cognitive strategies would be memorizing their math formula for a test by repeating the formula to their self. An another example of rehearsal cognitive strategies that is used by the adolescence group would be memorizing their state driver license book by repeating the rules their
Human memory is a complex cognitive structure, which can be defined in many ways. One would argue that memory is 1.) The mental function of retaining information about stimuli, event, images, ideas, etc. after the original stimuli is no longer present. 2.) The hypothesized storage system in the mind that holds this information is so retained. A clear distinction is made between different types of memory systems and can be divided into subclasses.
Tiyana’s performance on tasks assessing working memory fell within the lower end of the average range. A task on the WAIS-IV (Digit Span) required Tiyana to complete three different skills with a sting of numbers. She was asked to remember and repeat a list of numbers back. The second task required her to hold the list of numbers in her memory, manipulate the numbers and repeat them backwards. The third task, required
2581). The questions of if and how gender plays a role in a person's STM capabilities and working memory is one that has been visited and revisited over time, but has generally yielded fairly consistent results: one sex does not dominate the other in terms of which has a more functional STM, rather, men and women maintain their own respective skills regarding different areas of STM ("Sex Differences in Memory"; Loftus et al. 82).
On the same line, Miller’s “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information” (1956) investigated the limited amount of information that can be held in short-term memory and found that it can hold about seven items (plus or minus two) at a time, however, by organizing information into a sequence of chunks, people are able to “stretch” the amount one can retain in short-term memory. This suggests that specific mnemonics may enhance recall. Furthermore, this supports the idea of subjective organization improving recall by Tulving because participants performed better when using
Working memory allows for the immediate recall of information when given a task that requires the use of stored memories. This study focused on analyzing the effects of mini quiz games on the working memory's ability to recall nonsensical words in graduate students. More specifically, it investigated how repetition aids in storing information within both the visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop. Due to the multiple exposures to the nonsensical words through the mini quiz game, students were able to have consistent access to the information in order to recall what they have learned when given the task at hand of taking a quiz.
Memory is the information that has been encoded, stored, and available for retrieval in our brain. Memory can be subdivided into two broad categories: working memory (or short-term memory) and long-term memory. Long-term memory can in turn be divided into subsystems, one being episodic memory. To know the sex differences in episodic memory, it is important to know the definition. According to Herlitz and Rehnman, they described episodic memory as the conscious recollection of unique personal experiences in terms of their content (what), location (where), and temporal occurrence.