Now that the disease is more clearly defined, we must ask, why did this illness come about? This is one of the most interesting facts about Sickle Cell. Since the trait originated in countries that were ravaged by malaria, it could be said that this trait evolved to fight the deadly mosquito-spread disease. "People with sickle trait were more likely to survive malaria outbreaks in Africa than those with normal hemoglobin, it is
Sickle Cell Disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that occurs due to a mutation in the β-globin gene of hemoglobin. Autosomal meaning that it is not linked to a sex chromosome, so either parent can pass on the gene to their child. This mutation is a result of a single substitution of amino acids, Glutamic for Valine at position 6 of a β globin chain. The presence of this mutation causes
When Malaria is present and infects red blood cells, parasites can infect cells carrying defective hemoglobin which may result in death. Allele frequency changes over time depending on the pressures or circumstances facing a particular population. African populations are especially impacted by both malaria and sickle cell anemia. Depending on the impacted population, allele frequency often shifts and well suited organisms are likely to survive and allele frequencies can increase. When a population is effected by disease or other circumstances, allele frequency may decrease or change. HbA (normal hemoglobin) and HbS (defective hemoglobin) have varying frequencies and while the HbS gene is present in populations it is
People with sickle-cell anemia have to take penicillin, get extra vaccines, and get many tests done. Like most people they need to also exercise every day, have a nourishing diet, and get enough sleep every night. Sickle-cell anemia is most common in African Americans, 1 out of 365 African American children are born with two mutated hemoglobin genes or sickle-cell anemia. Sickle-cell anemia is a negative mutation of the hemoglobin gene because it prevents the oxygen from the lungs to the places its needed through the
This paper outlines the etiology of sickle cell anemia and the nutrition considerations that is needed to maintain this disease. It also provides a five day menu plan that will greatly provide nutrition needs to prevent having a sickle cell crisis.
What is Sickle Cell Anemia? Sickle Cell disease is a blood disorder that is inherited. By inherited I mean passed down from parents to their children. Babies are usually born with sickle cell disease. When they inherit two abnormal genes, one from each parent. Abnormal genes cause the body’s red blood cells to change shape. This being the effect of having sickle cell disease.
Sickle Cell Disease is a genetic disease caused by a SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism). Which means it is caused by a single letter gene mutation. Through the advent of CRISPR/Cas9 the disease might be cured. It is a serious reality and will enter medical trials within a handful of years. Sickle Cell Disease is an inherited disease that predominantly affects people of African descent. Red Blood cells become rigid and sickle shaped, causing blockages and pain crises. In cases of Sickle Cell Disease the Beta-Globin are mutated causing faulty and deformed Hemoglobin proteins thus creating sickled and short-lived Red Blood Cells.
Did you know that 70,000 to 80,000 alone in the United States of America are affected by sickle cell anemia alone? Stated from The United States National Library of Medicine. Also said by the United States National Library of Medicine 1 in 500 African Americans and 1 in 1,000 to 1,400 Hispanic Americans have the disease. Sad to say but my brother is a part of that 1 in 500 African American. Which one of the prime reasons I choose this topic. This disease is very severe and can cause excruciating pain and harm to someone's life.
The sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affects red blood cells. People with sickle cell have red blood cells that have mostly hemoglobin's, Sometimes these red blood cells become sickle-shaped or crescent shaped and have trouble going through small blood vessels. When sickle-shaped cells block small blood vessels, less blood can get to that part of the body. Tissue that does not get a normal blood flow eventually becomes damaged. This is what causes the problems of sickle cell disease.
People with sickle cell trait are heterozygotes for the mutated hemoglobin S gene. This means that they are only carries of the disease as half of their red blood cells are perfectly normally. Malaria is a blood disease caused by the Plasmodium parasites transmitted by Anophele mosquitos. These parasites swarm to red blood cells as their source of nutrients in order to reproduce. Individuals with sickle cell trait hold a selective advantage, as 50% of red blood cells are sickle shaped. This makes it more challenging for Plasmodium to infect and reproduce. Individuals with sickle cell trait also live with the sickle cell disease without experiencing any of the symptoms of the disease. Areas with the highest cases of malaria usually have the highest cases of sickle cell disease, which explains why regions of Africa suffocate the most from both illnesses.
Being heterozygous helps individuals thrive in a dangerous environment plagued with diseases. However, not everyone is lucky enough to acquire the heterozygous allele, some individuals must live the rest of their lives with sickle-cell and they are also prone to other diseases. Furthermore, being a carrier of the homozygous (SS) allele can increase your chances of dying if the person becomes infected with another virus or disease. Moving along, my research also determined that there is a need for more neonatal screening since Africa is susceptible to numerous types of diseases, and sickle-cell being one of them. Another important subject to bring up is that sickle-cell may have been brought to Africa by people migrating from Southern Arabia and India, or it may have been a mutation that took
People of African descent are the most likely to have sickle cell disease. Statistics show that 1 in every 365 of those with African descent have sickle cell disease and 1 and every 13 have sickle cell traits which means they don’t get the health problems that come with sickle cell disease and it even protects against malaria (Sickle Cell Disease, cdc.gov). As of 2015, there were about 4.4 million known cases of sickle cell disease and 43 million people have the sickle cell trait (Sickle-cell disease, Wikipedia). (word count:
Thousands of years ago, a genetic mutation occurred in people from the Mediterranean basin, India, Africa, and the Middle East. As the Malaria Epidemic attacked people of these countries, carriers of the defective hemoglobin gene survived. Carrying one defective gene means that a person has a sickle cell trait. Two parents with the trait will produce a child with sickle cell anemia. People of these countries migrated and spread to other areas. In the Western Hemisphere, where malaria is not much of a problem, having the abnormal hemoglobin gene has lost its advantage. Any child born from parents that each has the trait will be born with the disease.