Sigmund Freud And Erikson's Theory Of Human Development

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Introduction
The issue of human development has been a related one within the human society. In this respect, there are several developmental theories that have been forwarded by some of the world’s most well-known psychologists. The two main psychoanalytic theories are Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory. They are the two names that one cannot miss while talking about psychology. Sigmund Freud is called the father of psychology while Erik Erikson’s ideas have become the best known.
Outline of the two theories. o Erik Erikson's psychosocial
Erik Erikson (1902 -1994) was a German and he developed theory of psychosocial development which described growth and change throughout the lifespan, focusing on
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Despair Older: Adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfilment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret.

o Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory
The theory of psychosexual development was proposed by the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud and he described how personality developed over the course of childhood. Freud believed that personality developed through a series of five stages.

Oral stage (Birth to 1 year); an infant's main interaction with the world is during this stage. The mouth play vital role, for eating, sucking and also for motivation. If this need is not met, the child may develop an oral fixation later in life, which includes thumb-sucking, smoking, fingernail biting and overeating.

Anal Stage (1 to 3 years): Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements. Toilet training is a primary issue. Too much pressure is not healthy in this stage.

During the phallic stage (3 to 6 years): the primary focus of the libido is on the genitals. At this age, children also begin to discover the differences between males and
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Their theories were unique in their own way. Freud's psychosexual theory was focused almost entirely on male development with little mention of female psychosexual development. When Fisher & Greenberg (1996) evaluated psychosexual hypotheses specifically on female they found nothing. According to McLeod, S. (2013) Freud based his theory on the recollections of his childhood and his adult patients, not on actual observation and study of children. On the other hand Erikson’s studies were based on children, college students and most importantly he observed his own children
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