Sigmund Freud 's Civilization And Its Discontents

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Sigmund Freud, in his book Civilization and Its Discontents, contests that humans are subject to savage, animalistic instincts. He opposes the Marxist value that humans are superior to their animal counterparts, rather, he holds, humans are quite like wolves to each other. With this claim, he explores how internal compositions work in the grand scheme, to create a working mechanism of society that tames and creates internal negotiations of behaviour and instinct. (also include what comes of the last question) Freud, a psychologist, had views that were at odds with Marxist values, derived from a philosopher and economist. Their views on what drives human nature are fundamentally different. Freud adhered to the belief that humans are enslaved by their instinctive forces. This is to say that humans are driven to seek out pleasure. Marx, on the other hand, believed that humans are motivated by their place in society through labour. His core value was the division of labor, and how it structures society. Freud understood man in a Darwinian sense, that man comes from natural selection, in the sense that Darwin “insisted on its [homo sapiens] kinship with lesser cousins and observed that the “stamp of [its] lowly origin” was quite ineffaceable” (12). This contrasts with the Marxist assumption that humans are different from animals, the belief in human exceptionalism. Under this presumption, Marx finds that abuse and violence occurs in consequence to disproportionate distributions
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