Jews are the oldest diaspora who had no “homeland” for two millennia (Safran 2005). Despite attempts made by Christian evangelists to end the Jewish diaspora, they survived and developed a new relationship with the homeland. Historically, there has been historical meaning of diaspora for Jews- they were exiled because they were powerless, insecure and minority groups. The Jews diaspora who carried on its culture, maintained its ethnic or religious institution in America (hostland) are unwilling to surrender their identities and uphold a transpolitical relationship to the homeland or countries of origin (Safran 2005).
In the opening paragraph of his book Diaspora: Jews amidst Greeks and Romans, Erich Gruen claims, “the Jews of classical antiquity dwelled predominantly in the diaspora. Palestine may have been the cradle of their culture, but most Jews lived elsewhere – Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia, in Asia Minor, the Aegean, and Greece, even in Rome and Italy. The Jewish experience was largely a diaspora experience.” Similarly, Justo L. Gonzalez affirms, “Hispanics in this country (i.e., the United States) are a people in exile.”
No diasporic community manifests all of these characteristics or shares with the same intensity an identity with its scattered ancestral kin. In many respects, diasporas are not actual but imaginary and symbolic communities and political constructs; it is we who often call them into being.” (Palmer)
Migration has contributed to the richness in diversity of cultures, ethnicities and races in developed countries. However, individuals who migrate experience multiple stresses that can impact their mental well-being, including the loss of cultural norms, religious customs, and social support systems, adjustment to a new culture and changes in identity and concept of self. “Migration is defined as any permanent change in residence. It involves the ‘detachment from the organization of actives at one place and the movement of the total round of activities to another” (Drachman, Kwon-Ahn, Paulino, 1996,
To begin it is helpful to understand that the word “migrant” is a rather contested concept, one that changes over time, and varies depending on the criteria used to assign it.(Raghuram & Erel, 2014, p.133)
Many people choose to migrate to another country to pursue a better life where one can make more money with higher standard of living. However in the town Ticuani, located in Mixteca, Mexico, many people choose to “transnational” between their native country and United State, New york. Where one will spend sometime in New york and some other times in Ticuani, and their life will be moving back and for the between country. Even though this sound like an easy plan, but immigrant who did this had to adapt life from both countries and faces difficulties and problems from two places.
At its most fundamental, diaspora focuses on the physical movement of people. However, comprehensive scholarship elevates “diaspora” beyond
The journey that comes when relocating from one country to another can be a significant challenge for migrants through the idea of belonging.
Human migration can be influenced by various different stressors, whether it be by choice, in hopes of starting a new adventure, or by force, fleeing brutal persecution of a certain threat. Each individual has a unique story, all coming from different backgrounds and places around the world. However governing and political bodies often need certain labels and categories in order to define such a diverse set of people. Such legal definitions seem unnecessary or extensive due to the limitations they pose onto one’s identity, but they are a byproduct of sketching lines on the landscape and securing borders, protecting those who inhabit and belong.
Migrants cultivate their status as outsiders in a variety of ways. Some migrants are able to collaborate their identities with both the aspects of their ethnic heritage and their local community, at times managing to create a dignified sort of reputation within a sea of suspicious gazes. Then there are some who refuse to perceive their heritage as part of their individual identities, while doing their utmost to belong to a community separate from that of their parents. The struggles of various migrant communities and individuals are difficult to transfix at a simple point. What does appear to be the most prominent strand of commonality, however, is the idea that while migrants may not be able to guarantee a way to avoid being seen as outsiders by others, it is within their everyday abilities to refine their relationships as migrants towards others as they
As a result of the western colonizing movement of the 19th century, a massive diasporic movement of people across boundaries formed a unique group. This ongoing process of population movement and mass exodus, as well as the effects it caused drew attention to the academic world at both cultural and political levels. However, unlike the original residents, this diasporic shift demonstrated distinctive traits such as identity and an ideology which evidently differed from those of the natives. As Sreberny (2000. P179) argued: “Diaspora has become a key term in theorizing about immigration, ethnicity and identity” and exerted a considerable influence historically, culturally, socially and economically on developed capitalist societies.
The authors of the article New Keywords: Migration and Borders state that approaches such as critical race theory, feminism, labour studies and transnationalism have challenged migration studies to expand its boundaries
In Homeland-Diaspora Relation, it states that one of the essential aspects of the diaspora is their transpolitical linkage to the homeland. There have been impacts on the diaspora externally, which have directly involved Israel. The bat-mitsva from the U.S, Judaism coming from Europe and Maimuna flowing from North Africa. Some differing culture patterns were brought back to the hostland. Two examples are the German rank and title system as well as
There is a growing interest in sociology to study the emergence of a transnational social class – a new group in developed societies whose members, due to specific resources and capabilities possessed, are able to live their daily lives and develop their professional careers beyond the borders of any particular nation-state (see e.g. Mau, 2010, Andreotti et al., 2013b, Favell, 2003, Gerhards, 2012, Savage et al., 2004). The individuals belonging to this group are often perceived – in keeping with the cosmopolitan notion of a ‘citizen of the world’ – to have ‘globe-trotting’ lifestyles, universalized sense of belonging, and to be able to effortlessly integrate into any desired cultural and social milieu (Hannerz, 1990). Empirical studies, however,
Research on transnational and diasporic identities suggests that identities are dependent upon local senses of belonging as well as upon maintained attachments with place (McDowell, 2003). As Stern (1995) suggests, identification with one’s own nation is inevitable because individuals have ‘primordial attachments to their nations, cemented in ties such as ethnicity, language, race, culture,