Sin Nombre Virus Risk Assessment in Yosemite National Park Essay
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SIN NOMBRE VIRUS RISK ASSESMENT IN YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK
Hantaviruses are a genus of virus that are single-stranded, negative-sensed RNA viruses with a tripartite genome, represented by 45 different species across a worldwide distribution (Dearing and Dizney, 2010). They are pathogens primarily hosted by small mammals, in the family Muridae, with rats and mice making up the majority of these hosts. Hantaviruses first came to be known when two major disease events occurring in the twentieth century lead to the discovery of both old and new world hantaviruses (Johnson et al 2010). Old world hantavirus were first discovered during the Korean War (1950-1953) when over 3,000 U.N and Korean soldiers became stricken with hemorrhagic fever with…show more content… There is currently no antiviral drugs to treat HPS infections and the current form of treatment is through supportive therapy such as assisted respiration, and in extreme cases extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to provide a constant supply of oxygen to the patient (Mayo Clinic 2013). Even with treatment, HPS has a current mortality rate of approximately 38% (CDC. 2013).
The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) is the most widely dispersed mammal in North America and is the primary reservoir species for SNV (University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources 2013). Deer mice are nocturnal and are found throughout all types of habitats ranging from forests to scrublands, making this a very ubiquitous species that primarily feed on grains and seeds(University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources 2013). However deer mice are very adaptable animals that can change their diets to suit their environment and their diet can consist of invertebrates, fungi, fruits, and green vegetation. The typical lifespan of deer mice is 2 years and they typically do not breed during the winter, although in times of abundant food supply and warm temperatures they may breed year round with liter size varying from three to six young SNV (University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources 2013).
SNV is believed to be transmitted horizontally amongst deer mice through exchanges of body fluid which may increase with aggressive behaviors amongst individuals, such