The Coalition of Evidence-Based Practice has conducted research to test the effectiveness implemented interventions in various settings. Homelessness has been observed as a result of mentally ill clients being discharged from institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, prisons, and more). Although studies continue to change it has been found that Americans homeless rate in 2008 for individuals was around 740,000 (Fazel, Kohsla, Doll, and Geddes, 2008). This paper will explore the outcomes of this evidence based research and whether the intervention implemented proved to be effective or ineffective.
The problems of homelessness and mental illness are inextricably intertwined. One way that mental illness impacts people's lives is that it oftentimes renders them unable to carry out the functions of daily life, such as keeping a job, paying their bills, and managing a household. In addition to disrupting the events of daily life, mental illness "may also prevent people from forming and maintaining stable relationships or cause people to misinterpret others' guidance and react irrationally" (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2009). What this means is that a population that is already vulnerable because of an inability to consistently manage self-care lacks the same safety net as much of the rest of society.
The lack of mental health services available to the mentally-ill and the deinstitutionalization of mental health hospitals have created a public health concern. These issues along with a failed continuum of care plans and a lack of community mental health services have been major contributing factors to homelessness. In addition, the strict guidelines for psychiatric hospitalization are critical when analyzing homelessness. In many cases, only the critically ill are meeting clinical criteria for hospitalization, leaving those who have significant mental health problems to fend for themselves. The link between homelessness and mental health is acknowledged but requires reform.
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is a mobile out-reach treatment model for adults who suffer from mental health illness. A community based, individualistic support program, ACT is designed provide the same type of support and treatment a patient would find in a clinic (McAuliffe. W. E., 1990). The program considers circumstances of why an individual became homeless and aims to provide mental health care along with vocational training to find a job and stable housing (McAuliffe. W. E., 1990). ACT is based on the health belief model of behavior change. The stages of behavior change are employed by counseling sessions that address mental health symptoms and encourage self-efficacy through coping skills and job training.
After doing much research, I have learned that to develop awareness and interventions to be able to help the homeless population, we must understand their mental health and behavioral needs. The information they all share in common are the factors why a specific type of population became homeless. The interrelation of homelessness and mental illness are informed by many factors such as; the lack of support, extreme poverty, substance abuse, lack of affordable health insurance, and lack of affordable housing. The homeless population shares different struggles when dealing with homelessness and mental illnesses because there are not enough resources for them to be able to come back to their normal self. When it comes to their struggles, they
Homelessness as a result of deinstitutionalization in the US increased dramatically, tripling in 182 cities over the court of the 1980s (Bagenstos, 2012). In addition, mental health and substance abuse is a major problem in across the country because of homelessness. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration,20 to 25% of the homeless population in the United States suffers from some form of severe mental illness (DMHAS, 2014). Consequently, mental illnesses disrupt people’s ability to carry out key aspects of daily life, such as self-care and household responsibilities. As a result of these factors and the stresses of living with a mental disorder, people with mentally illnesses are much more likely to become homeless than the general population (Karger, & Stoesz, 2014). Even if homeless individuals with mental illnesses are provided with housing, they are unlikely to achieve residential stability and remain off the streets unless they have access to continued treatment and services. In Connecticut there are a number of housing options that are in place like supportive housing. Research has shown that supported housing is effective for people with mental illnesses (DMHAS, 2014). Unfortunately, in Connecticut, lack of funding is a significant barrier to the successful implementation of supported housing programs. Because of homelessness people cycle between street corner, jail cell and hospital beds, in addition the homeless who are
Homelessness has been a problem in the United States for well over a hundred years. Major economic downturns have always had a large role in effecting the homeless population. However, the deinstitutionalization of the psychiatric hospitals in America has greatly increased the size of the mentally ill homeless population, particularly in large urban areas. This increase in homelessness among people with
The number of chronic homeless individuals has dropped 30 percent from 2007 to 2014. Despite that, still about 15% of homeless people are mentally ill (“Chronic Homelessness – Overview”). An example of the effects of hospitality for this cause is the Carriage House. The Carriage House is a clubhouse in Indiana that assists those who are recovering from mental illnesses. Workers at the house provide these individuals with prepared meals, help with Medicaid billings, and with education in hopes that they can acquire a job. The executive director of this facility said, “We’re trying to change the face of mental illness in the whole world.” Programs like this one are a step in the right direction to achieve that goal, but if more people can assist these individuals with the appropriate help, there is no reason for why that goal cannot be met. With all these causes of homelessness in the United States, surely there is something the public can help
Mental health in America is a stigmatized topic that affects nearly 20% of the population and around 1 in 4 people will be affected by a mental illness at some point in their life (World Health Organization, 2010). However, due to the stigma behind mental health, people often do not seek treatment. As for the homeless population, the rates are much higher, with 1 in 4 homeless individuals living with a severe mental illness (Jasinski, Wesely, Mustaine, & Wright, 2005). These people and this population struggles to receive adequate healthcare, but with the enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or better known as ObamaCare, there have been positive change made to help these individuals. However, the ACA is not perfect and there are
How many people are homeless in the United States, why are they homeless, and what percentage of homeless people are negatively impacted by mental illness? These issues will be presented in this paper.
While 22% of the American population suffers from a mental illness, a small percentage of the 44 million people who have a serious mental illness are homeless any given point in time (National Institute of Mental Health, 2005). Despite the disproportionate number of mentally ill people among the homeless population, the growth in homelessness is not attributable to the release of seriously mentally ill people from institutions. Most patients were released from mental hospitals in the 1950s and 1960s, yet vast increases in homelessness did not occur until the 1980s, when incomes and housing options for those living on the margins began to diminish rapidly (see "Why Are People Homeless?," NCH Fact Sheet #1). However, a new wave of deinstitutionalization and the denial of services or premature and unplanned discharge brought about by managed care arrangements may be contributing to the continued presence of seriously mentally ill persons within the homeless population.
Dixon, Funston, Ryan and Wilhelm (2011) state that members of the homeless population also face cultural and economic barriers when it comes to mental health treatment. For example, they report that some fear that they will be involuntarily committed, that mental health professionals cannot relate to them, or their issues are too complex for professionals to respond to because they may also have alcohol or substance abuse problems to. According to Dixon et al (2011), there is a need for more integration of services, early intervention, and mental health professionals need to be trained on cultural competence.
Critical time intervention (CTI) was designed to be bridge that filled the gap between institutionalization and transition into the community. The hope of CTI is to prevent homelessness among individuals suffering from mental illness as well as develop a step- by- step initiative that could combat the growing problem (Critical Time Intervention, 2012). Buchanan (2006) estimates that 3.5 million individuals are likely to experience homelessness in a given year (Sadowski, 2009). The epidemiology of homelessness suggest that serious mental illness is neither a necessity nor sufficient enough for homelessness. It suggests; however, that individuals suffering from socioeconomically difficulties could inevitably accompany serious mental illnesses to form the abundance of homeless individuals, considering the majority of homelessness is attributed to mental illness cases (Montgomery, 2013). The purpose of this EBP is to integrate critical time intervention with programs simulated by Medicaid and already established initiatives of the Affordable Care Act of 2014.
According to the American Journal of Public Health (AJPH), disease was prevalent in the newly homeless. This population accessed health care services at high rates in the year before becoming homeless. Significant improvements in health status were seen over the study period as well as a significant increase in the number who were insured (American Journal of Public Health, 2012). The homeless in Overtown face a variety of risks and barriers to their health. Firstly, a good number of the population suffers from mental illness, they suffer from a range of mental health problems from depression, personality disorders, schizophrenia and many more. Most are unable to treat their mental
Social capital is the is the social connections that allow for social interactions in which an individual has opportunities to build bonds, help others out, and affect change for the better. When the social engagement is reciprocated, it can produce benefits for the multiple individuals engaged in the activity and so further the circumstance of the society.