Throughout the sixteenth century Satire was used as a method of both exposing and correcting vice. Isabella Whitney, the first known woman in England to publish a volume of poetry, wrote several satirical works. Throughout the duration of this course, although on the syllabus, satire was never discussed. Whitney used satire to write her two final poems “A Communication Which the Author had to London Before She Made Her Will” and “The Manner of Her Will, and What She Left to London and to All Those in It at Her Departing” which were published as the final two poems in her second volume, A Sweet Nosegay. They were written as a critique of modern London at the time. Although very little is known about the life of Isabella Whitney it is very possible to assume that her works, including these two, are autobiographical. These two works, regarding Isabella Whitney’s “last will and testament” to London should be included in L309 because of the different perspective that could be gained through; reading a work in which the speaker is portrayed by the poet, acquiring a female perspective, hearing the view of a member of the lower class, and the additional perspective it could add to the discussion regarding satire, or start the discussion in the case of this semester.
When Henry first starts his speech he first employs ethos by creating a respectful tone toward his delegates by using a litote in the very beginning in order to illustrate his respect for the delegates: “But different men often see the same subject in different lights; and, therefore, I hope it will not be thought disrespectful to those gentlemen if, entertaining as I do of opinions of a character very opposite to theirs, I shall speak forth my sentiments freely, and without reserve.” Henry uses this litote to negate the negative and make it into a positive meaning so he can effectively convey ethos since he directs that, his thoughts may differ from their own ideals but Henry uses this as a respectable tone to draw in the delegates in toward him and let them consider what he has to say. Not only that, but Henry uses religious ideals and God, to strengthen his credibility (ethos) and to persuade that the british are full of sinister intent and against god by using a metaphor and then a allusion. First he utilizes the metaphor where he compares the simle to a trap “Is that insidious simile...will it prove a snare to your feet.” This displays the unloyalty of the British toward their people. Then he uses the allusion to demonstrate that the British are wicked by comparing them to
“Mrs. Helmer, you evidently don’t clearly realize what you’re guilty of. But, believe me, my one mistake, which cost me my whole reputation, was nothing more and nothing less than what you did.” (1616)
Katherine Philips’ “On the 3. of September, 1651” is a thirty-four line poem with an AABB rhyme scheme. Comparing a royal’s reign to a sunset, the poem depicts the destructive, blazing fall of a monarchy.
He uses a powerful metaphor to slavery throughout the speech, referring to their “chains”. This creates a feeling of distaste, as slaves were the lowest members of the unofficial social caste system of colonial times. The comparison to such an undesirable position creates a strongly negative emotional reaction in the reader. Beyond that, Henry uses strong diction to get the reader riled up. Words such as “treason” and “insidious” along with his listed account of the increasingly humiliating ways they have “prostrated themselves before the throne” stirs the reader to sympathy towards their suffering at the “tyrannical hands of the ministry”. He couples this with allusions, using two to describe the kind treatment that Britain had been giving them presently. He cites the “song of the siren” and betrayal “with a kiss”, alluding to Greek mythology and the Bible,
One example of this found in his speech is, “suffer not yourself to be betrayed by a kiss”. In the 1700s, the Bible was the most read book throughout the world. Every man was familiar with the story of Judas betraying Jesus by kissing Him on the cheek. In that sense, when Henry alluded to that particular biblical story, he was able to make a reference that he knew his audience would understand, and that would support his goal. To be betrayed by a kiss, Henry is implying that while the British may seem to be lessing the reigns they hold over the colonies-for example, by eliminating the Stamp Act, they soon would betray the colonies by imposing even stricter limitations without their consent. In another form, Henry uses allusions in order to appeal to his audiences religious characteristics. Most men were God-fearing, and any mention of sin would create uneasiness. “Are we disposed to be the number of those who, having eyes, see not, and having ears, hear not, the things that so nearly concern their temporal salvation?”, included Henry in his speech. This alluded to many different Biblical verses, as the phrase is spoken multiple times. Jesus often said this to his disciples, and many times they were left to ponder the meaning while not fully grasping its meaning. So, when Henry alluded to it, his audience recognized it as the words from Jesus himself. However, Henry was referencing it to mean that the colonies only see what they want to see, and likewise, hear what they want to hear. Adding on, the “temporal salvation” also alludes to the Bible. Christians believe that salvation can be achieved by living a faithful life by Christ. When Jesus died on the cross to save mankind from their sins, He opened the opportunity for eternal salvation. In contrast, Henry uses the term “temporal salvation” to describe the possibility of forming a
Oliver Cromwell is – and has always been – one of the most controversial characters in British and Irish history. There are few people in Great Britain and Ireland today who have not yet heard of Oliver Cromwell and either loathe him or see him as a hero. Yet, the world is not black and white and so is the truth about Cromwell. In order to understand his role in both countries as a whole, one has to look at the perspective of both nations, Cromwell’s beliefs and his motives.
During the late seventeenth century the English controlled-parliament had legislated several ideas and laws that restricted the rights of the Ireland Catholics. This caused the Ireland economy to slowly fall apart as many people discarded the issues. However, Jonathan Swift took advantage of the overlooked laws and went on to write the essay, A Modest Proposal. In this writing piece Swift lodged a ridiculous proposal. In doing so he manifested a clear cut image of how backwards and corrupted the state of Ireland really was in the hands of the English. Swift’s essay employed his insincerity, sarcasm, verbal irony, and rhetorics that depicted the conditions of Ireland and its people. However his tone of the whole essay along with his insincerity illustrated the comical effect of the proposal to make his argument seem unserious.
During a time in England when there was much religious conflict, there was also a need to protect the queen due to her religious beliefs. The protectors who safeguarded Queen Elizabeth I from danger were commonly thought to be her brave knights or constables. However, there was actually a clandestine group of individuals who were charged with a similar duty. Unlike England’s military intelligence forces today, a disorganized spy group engaged in espionage for the defense of Renaissance England 's important affairs and for Queen Elizabeth herself. Because of this spy ring 's successes, Elizabethan espionage had a dramatic impact on the growth and evolution of England as a nation.
Mary Wollstonecraft’s epistolary essay “A Vindication of the Rights of Men” acts as a direct, scathing response to Edmund Burke’s opinionated piece regarding the French Revolution, “Reflections on the Revolution in France”. This essay will examine the use of satire as a mode in the opening sections of Wollstonecraft’s “Vindication”, as well as comparing her lexical choices to those of her addressee, Edmund Burke. The Oxford English Dictionary states that “satire” is “… [A] work of art which uses humour, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize prevailing immorality or foolishness, esp. [sic] as a form of social or political commentary.” Humour is too exaggerated to relate to Wollstonecraft’s work, but ridicule as a
This essay will discuss the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 when a group of catholic noblemen plotted to blow up the English House of Parliament; the target of the plot was King James VI of Scotland and I of England. This essay will focus on how the event impacted Catholics and their treatment in society and law after the event. Primary sources including letters, Parliamentary documents and their insight into how the event impacted Catholics in the years after the event will be used to provide evidence and Secondary sources to provide different historians views on the treatment of Catholics.
In “A Man for All Seasons,” Sir Thomas More, the plot’s protagonist, displays a reoccurring theme of integrity. According to Webster’s Dictionary, integrity is the “adherence to moral and ethical principles; and soundness of moral character.” Dedicated to not losing himself by consenting to the King’s divorce, Thomas More continually shows the adherence to his morality rather than the wishes of those around him. Even though this historic drama ultimately ends in the beheading of Sir Thomas More, his integrity shows his devotion towards himself, his piety towards his country, and his self-respect that contrasts with the other characters.
The Canterbury Roll is a fifteenth-century genealogical chronicle roll that traces the succession of English kings from Noah until the Wars of the Roses. Created in a period when genealogy and ancestry had practical and ideological values in society, the Canterbury Roll is symbolic of the ideas of dynasty, myth and heritage that its original creators and readers valued. This thesis departs from previous historiographical approaches to genealogical rolls by treating the Canterbury Roll as a document that reflects the ‘political culture’ in which it was produced. By examining the image, text and materiality of the manuscript, the thesis develops on existing scholarship and offers insights into the depiction of political prophecies, political
“A Satire against Reason and Mankind” is a poem written by John Wilmot the Second Earl of Rochester. Two things are argued against in this poem. First, mankind and its base nature that causes men to exploit each other for seemingly no reason. Second, mankind’s ability to reason which causes them to compare themselves to God. However, at the end of the poem Rochester offers a chance for himself to be proven wrong, but only if a just man can be found. This idea of a “just man” is not Rochester believing mankind can improve, but rather it is him supporting his own argument because he knows that this man does not exist. When this “just man” is described he directly contrasts with human nature and shines a light on man’s true baseness and shows
During the 16th Century, English poetry was dominated and institutionalised by the Court. Because it 'excited an intensity that indicates a rare concentration of power and cultural dominance,' the Court was primarily responsible for the popularity of the poets who emerged from it. Sir Thomas Wyatt, one of a multitude of the so-called 'Court poets' of this time period, not only changed the way his society saw poetry through his adaptations of the Petrarchan Sonnet, but also obscurely attempted to recreate the culture norm through his influence. Though much of his poems are merely translations of Petrarch's, these, in addition to his other poetry, are satirical by at least a cultural approach.