Richard Ligon was from England and moved to Barbados in 1647. There, he lived amongst slaves, servants, and planters for approximately ten years. He witnessed many forms of slavery and paid close attention to how the different slave groups were being treated, in comparison to one another.
The Black Jacobins The San Domingo revolution led to the abolition of slavery, independence of Haiti from France and the proclamation of a black republic. However, unlike many historians, CLR James in his work, The Black Jacobins, does not depict the struggle for independence as merely a slave revolt which happened to come after the French Revolution. He goes beyond providing only a recount of historical events and offers an intimate look at those who primarily precipitated the fall of French rule, namely the black slaves themselves. In doing so, James offers a perspective of black history which empowers the black people, for they are shown to actually have done something, and not merely be the subject of actions and attitudes of
The book “Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions” written by Dr. Jane Landers explains the impact of the slaves being used by many different nations
The African Voices of the Atlantic Slave Trade by Anna C. Bailey takes a rather interesting approach into the history of the Atlantic slave trade. Bailey took a personal journey, and was determined to break the silence. Of course with that being said it would prove to be a difficult quest since so many of these people are shamed about slavery, and the discussion of slavery is a taboo topic in its own ways. It was time to break the silence. Through out the book she explores diverse groups, of distinct people who all share the prevalent history of slavery. Her central theme in unveiling the past is through oral stories. Bailey makes it known in the first chapter that most texts written about the slave trade primarily focus on the Europeans perspective, which is what sets her book apart. Bailey herself residing in Jamaica takes an intimate standpoint to slavery, herself being of African slave descent, and knowing very limited details about her extensive family history. “What is clear from my family history is that more is known about the relatively recent past than is known about the period when my family members were undoubtedly slaves) . Through the obstacles and difficulties Bailey was able to succeed, and gave those affected a voice. Her approach will be examined, and the strengths and weaknesses in her approach will be brought to light.
Enslavement Resistance Slave resistance began for many enslaved Africans before they reach the Americas. Karenga explained the many arrangements in which Africans resisted to enslavement, while in Africa, during the middle passage, and in the Americas. Employing the Karenga text one can evaluate the different resistances that transpired in Antigua as Cultural, Resistance, Day-to-Day Resistance, Abolitionism, Armed Resistance, Revolts, Ship Mutinies, and Afro-Native Alliance. One can conclude that enslaved Africans had an unrelenting resistance to enslavement (Karenga).
Linebaugh and Rediker write that a third vector of revolution went east toward abolitionist movement in England. The authors convincingly supported their claim by examining the work of Granville Sharp, Thomas Clarkson and the life of Olaudah Equiano. Sharp, who opposed impressments in American Revolution, published the horrors on the board of the slave ship Zong. Equiano told him that a captain of the ship threw 132 slaves overboard to preserve supplies and later tried to collect insurance money for the dead. Sharp also worked on founding a free state of Sierra Leone in 1786, and served on the Committee for Effecting the Abolition of Slave Trade. Clarkson collected evidence about slave trade through informants (sailors and former slaves) in ports of Liverpool, Bristol and London. But the connection of sailors to the abolitionist movement, the authors write, was best articulated through the life of Olaudah Equiano. Enslaved in West Africa, he was a witness of horrifying events constantly happening
The thesis Webb Garrison is trying to display is that about a century before the privateers had been involved in trying to win the American Independence. On April 1861 the confederacy was free under international law to license privateers. The possibility that privateers could be captured and executed , the confederate government made a choice to use Union prisoners of war as
In a unique approach author David Galenson examines the transition of servants to slaves during the 17th and 18th century of British America. He successfully covers the importance of slavery and the reason for its high demand. Galenson takes into consideration the demographic conditions and its differences throughout the West Indies,
Some Africans did not go without putting up a fight. For instance, Captain Tomba led many villagers “in burning huts and killing neighbors who cooperated with slave traders” (14). He was later captured and sent to the slave ship where he would be sold in the New World. The slaves also resisted by refusing to eat. Most of them decided they would rather have death than to live the lifestyle on the slave ships. The captains punished those who refused to eat by giving them lashes to the bare skin until they decided to eat. Olaudah Equiano could be considered one of the more fortunate Africans involved in the slave trade. Rediker uses Equiano to show how Africans were kidnapped and brought to the slave ship. Equiano was home alone with his sister when he was snatched by a neighboring enemy tribe. Tribes were kidnapping each other to sell to the slave traders for goods and even weapons. Equiano was separated from his sister and sold off to merchants before actually boarding the slave ship. He mentioned several times how he would rather die than be on the slave ship. He noticed right away that “the slave ship was equipped with nettings to prevent precisely such desperate rebellion” (109). Equiano went to the Americas and was left alone when none of the merchants purchased him. He was sold to a captain and boarded his ship back to England. On this slave ship, he was treated much better. He got to stay on the deck and eat better food than he had
On September 1739, a group of South Carolina slaves, most of them recently arrived from kongo where some had appeared to be soldiers, where they had taken a store containing which had a number of weapons at the town of stono. They would use “beating drums to attract followers, the armed band marched southward toward Florida, burning houses and barns, killing whites they encountered, and shouting liberty.”(144). This rebellion took the lives of more than two dozen whites and as many as 200 slaves. Many slaves managed to reach Florida, where in 1740 they were armed by the Spanish to help repel an attack on St. Augustine by a force from
Raina Baxter Dr. Haas AFRI 312 September 28, 2015 The Abolishment of Slavery in the United States and Haiti. When you think of the abolishment of slavery, what is the first place you think of? Was it the United States? Maybe even Africa? Although these two regions are well discussed in the history of slavery
The Amistad The Amistad was a Spanish ship built in Baltimore for the purpose of transporting slaves. For three years, it sailed the high seas delivering its cargo to various locations. But in August of 1838, a scandalous injustice was uncovered after the ship was seized by an American vessel, the
The dramatic story of the Amistad, which was featured in a major motion picture that opened in December, is found among the court records at the National Archives - Northeast Region at Waltham, MA, and in the Supreme Court records at the National Archives in Washington, DC. In 1839, 53 African natives were kidnapped .from an area now known as Sierra Leone and illegally sold into the Spanish slave trade. They were transported to Havana, Cuba and sold at auction as native Cuban slaves to two "Spanish gentlemen." The Spaniards were transporting the Africans and other cargo to another part of Cuba on board the Spanish schooner Amistad when the Africans staged a revolt, seizing control of the schooner, killing the captain and the cook, and driving off the rest of the crew. The two "Spanish gentlemen" were ordered to sail back to Africa. By day, the Spaniards sailed eastward and by night they surreptitiously sailed westward, hoping to land back in Cuba or the southern United States. The ship was seized and towed to New London, Connecticut, where the imprisoned Africans began a lengthy legal battle to win back their
December 3rd 1820 For almost a century now, campaigns by British Parliament and antislavery societies have invoked a movement of civil awareness against slavery, to challenge the moral and legal basis for its purpose. And though a substantial moral victory was achieved when slavery in Britain was ruled illegal in 1772 and the bill abolishing slave trade was passed in 1807, British colonized Caribbean countries have yet to see the same sort of legislation. My family and I have supported the antislavery campaigns and all it stands for, we have lost friends, business and long standing relationships for our belief of freedom for all. Today I land on the shores of Trinidad in hopes that there are others like me. People who can see that freedom belongs
Bibliography 1) Beckles, M.H., & Shepherd, V. (2000) Caribbean Slavery in the Atlantic World. Jamaica, Ian Rhandle Publishers Limited.