Slips of the Tongue as Speech Errors

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Types of Speech Errors Garrett (1975) represented four characteristics of slips of the tongue. The first one is that the exchange exists between linguistic units of the same positions. For example, initial linguistic segments are replaced by another initial linguistic segment. The same generalization is applied to the middle and final linguistic segments. Additionally, slips appear in similar phonetic units. This means that that the consonants are replaced by consonants and vowels are replaced by vowels. Furthermore, the slips occur in similar stress patterns, which signify that stressed syllables are replaced by stressed syllables and unstressed syllables are replaced by unstressed syllables. Finally, slips of the tongue follow the phonological rules of a language (cited in Carroll, 2007, p. 195). Researchers have provided different classifications of speech errors. They can be categorized according to the “linguistic units,” such as “phonological feature, phoneme, syllable, morpheme, word phrase, or sentence levels” (Harely, 2001, p. 376). Moreover, speech errors can be classified according to the “mechanisms” of the speech errors (Harely, 2001, p. 376). For example, Carroll (2007) classified eight of the basic types of slips of the tongue according to the error mechanism from the previous psycholinguistic studies. These errors include shift, exchanges, anticipations, perseveration, additions, deletions, substitutions, and blends. Shift is defined as the movement of one
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