Smoking is the act of breathing in the smoke produced by burning tobacco either in cigarettes, cigars or pipes. Smoking was introduced to the European culture by explorers such as Christopher Columbus, the practice soon spread across the globe. Smoking (2017) describes the use of tobacco products in the early 20th century as medicinal. Health practitioners believed smoking would aid in elevating the disposition, concentration and productivity of their patients. However, by the early 21st century the converse to this theory had been proven. Smoking had been identified as one of the leading causes of mortality and disease globally. Smoking is still widespread today, although there are many religious, social and medical discussions against it.
One of my first memories in the United States was taking a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E) class. I was in sixth grade and a top student, as talking about drugs and alcohol and the way they affect us was fascinating to me. This is why, the following year, I volunteered to become a peer educator in Teens Against Tobacco Use (T.A.T.U). For a couple of years, I gave presentations to young students which included facts, demonstrations, and games, to spread the knowledge that tobacco is harmful and that staying away from smoking prolongs life expectancy and increases the quality of life. It should come as no surprise, then, that I consider myself a big proponent of staying tobacco-free and encouraging others to quit smoking as a great way to promote health. I remember watching my mom and sister as they took part in their nightly ritual of smoking a few cigarettes to unwind. “Did you know that a main component of cigarettes is used as rocket fuel?” I would ask them, as I opened the window and they stared back at me blankly. “We know, we know” was the answer every time. I knew that convincing them to quit was no easy task, but I was committed. Day after day, I proudly stated a new fact about the evils of smoking. Finally one day, they quit. At first, they attributed it to the cost. Since we had just immigrated to the United States, the cost of cigarettes was simply not something they could afford. I didn’t believe it. I proudly
Classical and operant conditioning are two important concepts central to behavioral psychology. While both result in learning, the processes are quite different. In order to understand how each of these behavior modification techniques can be used, it is also essential to understand how classical conditioning and operant conditioning differ from one another. Both classical and operant learning are psychological processes that lead to learning. Here learning refers to the process by which changes in behavior, including actions, emotions, thoughts, and the responses of muscles and glands,
In this paper there will be an examination of the Operant Conditioning theory. It will describe the theory, and compare and contrast the positive and negative reinforcement. It will determine which form of reinforcement is the most effective, and will give an explanation of the reasoning behind that choice. It will also give a scenario in which operant conditioning is applied and how it shapes behavior. It will show a schedule that could be used in the reinforcement of the selected behavior in the scenario.
A researcher named Burrhus Frederic Skinner thought he would develop the idea of operant conditioning. He suggested than we act in regard to consequences (reward or punishment) in which we actively learn. He suggested there are 3 types of these consequences of behavior; positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment. Positive reinforcement is receiving a reward for acting in a certain way. An example of this could be getting a school prize for performing well in your exams, because of the reinforcement of the prize, the student will try to perform well every time. Negative reinforcement occurs when we act in a way that avoids an unpleasant consequence (e.g. not being late to a meeting because you do not want to be perceived as rude). Punishment is an unpleasant consequence that comes from the way we act. For example, gaining a detention for arriving late to lessons. Punishment decreases like probability that behaviour is likely to be repeated. Whereas, in positive and negative reinforcement the chances are you will repeat the behaviour. Skinner’s conducted research in the form of a lab experiment. He used a hungry rat that was placed in a cage that had been especially developed for the purpose of the study and was named Skinner’s box. In the cage was a button and a food dispenser. When the rat pressed the button food would appear in the dispenser. The animal soon learned that
Cigarette smoke has extreme health consequences. It has been found that for both sexes, smoking increases the risk of dying from heart disease and from all causes; and for women, it increases the likelihood of dying from lung cancer (Bjartveit and Tverdal 2005). Cigarette smoking habits also
Smoking is a particularly common and intractable addictive disorder and is the leading preventable cause of many preventable chronic illnesses and death, responsible for approximately six million annual mortalities Yet, despite the well documented consequences of smoking, despite the unequivocal benefits of quitting and despite facts such as that approximately 17,000 people die each day in the world from smoking prematurely, over a billion people around the world still continue to smoke people continue to engage in this health risk behaviour(www.who.int). This leads us to question what motivates an individual to smoke, and not to smoke.
Over the years, statistics show that smoking cigarettes can cause many serious health issues. These issues compound when the smoker is expecting. Fourteen percent of U.S. mothers smoke while pregnant despite knowing the fact that smoking causes harm to both mother and child. In younger mothers, age 25 and under, that number rises significantly to 20 percent. If a woman smokes then becomes pregnant, she must decide whether or not to quit. Woman are aware that cigarettes are not good for them or their baby, but do they understand the severity of smoking while carrying their unborn child in their womb? In this paper I will evaluate how women who smoke while pregnant are at high risk for early miscarriage, preterm birth, and birth defects. Is smoking a cigarette worth risking the life of your unborn child?
Operant conditioning has made a significant contribution into the development of psychology. However, as with most psychological theories, this theory it has its strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, operant conditioning, with both its positive and negative aspects, is very important in promoting learning of desirable behaviors or removal of undesirable
A client is struggling with a compulsive habit that includes smoking more than three packs of cigarettes a day. As a therapist you want to help them overcome the habit. To go about doing this, there are two techniques you have available to you. The techniques are operant conditioning and classical conditioning. Operant conditioning is a cause-and-effect relationship between a person’s behavior and the consequences. When a behavior is punished, it decreases; and when a behavior is rewarded it increases. Classical conditioning involves a natural, unconditioned response that follows an unconditioned stimulus, then a neutral stimulus becomes associated with the unconditioned stimulus which then becomes the conditioned stimulus, finally the conditioned stimulus creates a conditioned response.
While pregnant women who smoke cigarettes on a daily basis can greatly harm their fetus. There are many effects that cigarettes smoking by pregnant women have on their fetus. As researches show that smoking can induce spontaneous abortion too. The Tabaco smoke in cigarettes greatly reduces fetal growth through the presence of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide. Through this research, “if women smoke during pregnancy, their baby is exposed to harmful chemicals such as tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide. Nicotine causes blood vessels to constrict, so less oxygen and nutrients reach the fetus. Carbon monoxide decreases the amount of oxygen the baby receives” (Medline plus). A good mother should protect their unborn babies because when a pregnant mother smokes, their babies smoke too. Also Smoking while pregnant reduces an unborn baby’s oxygen, this place at risk for poor lung function, and low birth weight. According to this research of pregnant women who smoke cigarettes “the risk of preterm birth and problems with the way the placenta attaches to the uterus are increases in women who smoke during pregnancy. Also, infants born to women who smoke during pregnancy tend to be smaller than those born to nonsmokers. They are more likely to have asthma, colic, and childhood obesity. They also have an increased risk of dying from sudden infant
Smoking expands the shots of the child having conception deformities. Case in point, the youngster may create extreme mind harm. The infant likewise may be impressively light in weight. Every one of these results are to a great degree negative and can bring about blame.
A study entitled, Effect of sports sponsorship by tobacco companies on children’s experimentation with tobacco, utilized a questionnaire that asked adolescents aged 13-16 about their knowledge of tobacco’s addictive and destructive nature, their level of temptation to buy or experiment with tobacco, and their awareness of tobacco as a sponsor of sporting events. The majority of those questioned were cognizant of the significant negative implications that tobacco could have on one’s health, including causing cancer, heart disease and reducing lifespan. Nonetheless, those who watched sporting events with tobacco sponsors were enticed to buy cigarettes. Youth associate sport with the attributes of a healthy lifestyles in the same fashion as adult fans, the difference lies in the pliability of their understanding. This study showcases that those who were most likely to experiment or buy tobacco products were not only aware of the affiliations of tobacco and sports, they had also viewed the sporting events (Vaidya, Naik, Vaidya, 1996). This is pertinent due to the fact that adolescents watching the matches attributed the athletic abilities of the players to the usage of tobacco products. Some children believed that the athletes were smokers, and extrapolated the false notion that, “smoking gives more strength, improves battling and fielding, and increases chances of winning” (Vaidya, Naik, Vaidya, 1996, p. 400). Having said that, youth who didn’t watch the sporting events but who
According the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015), cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, accounting for more than 480,000 deaths every year, or 1 of every five deaths. In 2015, about 15 of every 100 U.S. adults age 18 years or older currently smoke cigarettes. However, this is a decline from nearly 21 of every 100 adults back in 2005. One reason for the decline is due to smoking cessation programs developed within our communities. These programs are helping smokers to quit their habit, and improve their health and lifestyle. Let us look at what it takes to make a smoke cessation successful within ones’ community.