Smoking and Dental mplants

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Endosseous dental implants have made a tremendous breakthrough in dentistry revolutionizing the restorative possibilities since early 1970's1. They provide an impressive, idealized(both in function and appearance ), and durable restorative results for a variety of Prosthodontic situations ranging from single teeth, crowns,bridges and complete dentures2,3,4,5.
The dental implants have completely changed the foundation of the oral rehabilitation due to their well demonstrated success rates(95%) and high predictability (Esposito et al,2011).As an increasing number of people are receiving implants2,9,10,11,12,13,14 ,there has been ,simultaneously ,a growing interest in identifying the components that can predispose individuals to lower rates of success and cause a significant loss to both the dental practitioner and the patient14,17,18.Broadly ,these factors may be classified as ;patient, clinician or implant associated15,16.
Cigarette smoking, a patient related risk factor, is a common habit. It has been under scrutiny for long due to a progressive number of diseases directly or indirectly linked with it 20.The toxic byproducts of the cigarette smoke have been implicated to influence general health 21.The oral cavity, being the first point of contact for cigarette smoke and heat, may be equally affected22. The implant insertion may be compared to the healing process after bone fracture and involves the same process18. The presence of the cigarette components
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