This essay will compare and contrast two theories of behaviour management by Carl Rogers and BF Skinner and argue ways in which one of these theories could be implemented for a particular context and practice. Roger’s theory is based on a humanistic approach, while Skinner’s theory takes a behaviourist approach; each theory has both benefits and shortcomings. Their views form opposite ends of the learning spectrum. These theories will be examined as their respective works address the underlying issue of how children learn to behave.
Applied behavioral analysis (ABA) is the leading scientific method that helps patients with Autism to overcome their condition. In order to improve their condition, ABA specialists focus on a system of reward, which encourages positive actions like speech, social activity and life skill improvements. This works mostly with children as they are more likely to absorb and accept new challenges; this is commonly referred to as "positive reinforcement" in the literature and has become one of the leading directions for treatment. ABA therapy was devised and implemented by Dr. O. Ivar Lovaas at UCLA in 1987. Since then, ABA therapy has become a leading branch of psychology - behaviorism.
This paper will attempt to analyze sociological factors, which explain societies propensity to treat women differently than men when they are accused of committing a violent crime, such as murder. Because we live in a male-dominated society it is believed that men commit most violent crimes. Some studies indicate that when a violent crime is committed by a man society has a more acceptable view of the offense. Because of gender stereotypes, women are judged more harshly by society than a man. Women are expected to follow normal behavior as ascribed by their societies current definitions of normal. Society views women as nurturers who are subservient to their husbands and devoted to their children (2008). The Andrea Yates case was chosen as the focus of this paper because it perfectly illustrates the impact of external and internal forces, which can drive a woman to commit a violent crime and societies reaction to those crimes.
When people are part of a group, they often start to deviate from their personalities, and tend to focus on the opinions and actions of the group. Groups can generate a sense of engaging energy, which can lead to behaviors that a person would not typically engage in if they were alone. People seem to believe that certain behaviors are acceptable when they are in groups that would otherwise not be acceptable if they were alone. Many people believe they cannot be held responsible for their actions when they are with a group because they see the
Social influences shape every person's practices, judgments, and beliefs. (Asch 306) In "Opinions and Social Pressure", Solomon Asch examines how individuals tend to conform to a group or majority. He does this by explaining the results of his experiment that he devised to observe to what extent conformity occurs. In her essay titled "Group Minds", Doris Lessing claims that as a society we have enough knowledge about conformity to do something about it, yet we choose not to. Although Doris Lessing and Solomon Asch both suggest that people desire independence yet yield to conformity, Asch's experiment adds specificity to Lessing's claims. Lessing speaks generally about groups and the effect they have on conformity, whereas Asch's experiment
Hypothesis: The hypothesis was that people who normally have a high desire to control situations in their lives are less likely to conform to the group norm in certain types of situations than those who have a low desire for control.
Imagine a thirteen year old middle school girl, wearing Guess boots and an Abercrombie hood in order to fit in. Visualize a thirty five year old man listening to the top forty radio stations and watching American Idol, so he can have something to add to the discussion with his co-workers over coffee break. The various types of behaviours stated before are pertained to as conformity. Conformity refers to the process by which an individual's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours are influenced by other individuals. Except, how do these necessities manipulate a being? Social psychologists have conducted an assortment of experiments and concluded that, through a range of forms of social influence, groups can alter their members’ personality.
This experiment found that when a group of two other people refused to obey the conditions of the experiment, then the third person would most likely do the same. It was found that, “The presence of others who are seen to disobey the authority figure reduces the level of obedience to 10%” (McLeod 588). A similar finding is noted in Solomon Asch’s “Opinions and Social Pressure”, where it was found that when someone is among their peers, they are more likely to conform to the group opinion. Asch acknowledges that social pressure plays a large role because the individual “must declare his judgments in public, before a majority which has also stated its position publicly” (Asch 599). This confirms the idea that an individual is more likely to conform when they are being judged by their
There is a fundamental human need to belong to social groups especially if people were to live and work together, it is likely that they need to agree on common beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviours in order to get along and fit-in. Thus, we learnt to conform to rules of other people, the more people see others behaving in a particular way or making particular decisions, the more likely people will feel obliged to follow the suit. This is called conformity and can be defined in different ways, Aronson, Wilson & Akert (2014) stated it is the changing of one’s behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people. According to Deutsch and Gerard (1955), social influence should be distinguished into two types, the informational social influence and normative social influence. The occurrence of social influence has implied to many real life events, which has drawn many researchers to attention. This has lead many researchers to design distinct experiments to try and understand the cause of the conformity, whether conformity is situation dependent, and whether we are able to resist social influences.
I also agree that management has to be able to change and grow and continue to listen to any upward communication from the staff. In order to accomplish better communication, management should provide an ‘open-door’ policy and also informal meetings where employees can either feel free to go to their supervisors first with any questions or concerns and also raise issues with resources or basically anything that interferes with their job performance (Newstrom, 2014, p. 70).
Also analyzes how activation of our Identity (specifically our morals) affects our behavior with regard to choosing and being active members in groups and why (i.e. group affirmation, favoritism, view confirmation, etc). Their experiment assesses how ingroup factors combine such as peer pressure and environmental factors. Experiment utilized undergraduate colleges studies of varied demographics; participants underwent an online survey and then a laboratory trial which turned on the participants moral identity in certain groups and did not activate this personality in others. The survey created a baseline for analysis to pair with the results of the experiments performed which used priming techniques to study the effect of activating the moral identity while playing a game of sorts which invoked confidence and competition. If ingroup pressures were high, the members tended to deviate more from their baseline identification (morals) which suggests that the Us membership is so strongly valued that we are willing to disregard our beliefs to align with the norm of the
While the study of human genes is increasingly improving our understanding of human development, it is not solely our genetic makeup that determines how we will develop. Humans as a species share many universal traits, which make it easy to disregard the large influence the environment plays in development. Throughout the lifespan, the environment presents itself in many different positions that help determine and shape human development. By looking at the influence of the environment and genetics on human development we are able to create a more holistic view of this process and gain a better understanding of the complexities involved within it. Through this comprehensive lens, it is easy to see how probabilistic human development offers the greatest amount of explanation, unlike the predetermined views of genetic influence in the past, and that environmental influence has an extensive impact on human behavior.
“Social influence is the process by which the actions of an individual or group affect the behavior of others” (Feldman 495). These influences are strongly experienced by members in the group. Every group is unique and is mostly guided by a particular norm and behavior. An individual in a group passively or actively allows himself to be influenced by the group just to have a sense of belongingness. In the bid to prevent being excluded or rejected from a group, some individuals overtly adhere to the norms of the group. “Thus, people conform to meet the expectations of the group” (Feldman 495).
Another form of social influence is obedience. Obedience occurs when an individual acts in response to an order by a person in authority whether that order goes against what they know to be right or not. This can be done to gain acceptance or to avoid punishment. Obedience accounts for a large amount of the medication errors that happen in hospitals each day. An example of this is a nurse following a doctor’s order even when the doctor’s orders go against her professional obligations. This was demonstrated in an experiment conducted by C. Hofling. In Hofling’s experiment 22 nurses who worked at a hospital were contacted by a staff doctor that they did not know. They were told to give twice the highest dose of a drug to his patient. If the nurses did what they were told they would be going against three different rules. First, they were not to accept doctor’s orders over the phone. Second, the dose called for by the doctor was double the maximum for that drug. Third, the medication was not on their authorized list of medications. Of the 22 nurses 21
This research paper will look at social norms and behavioural patterns in different metropolitan environments among various different groups of road users, paying special attention to how these groups interact with one another. My chosen method of research for this study was participant observation. The observations were done at three different commercial intersections within Metro Vancouver, located in areas of varying population density and exhibiting different physical characteristics.