The literature review addresses the following question: Does social class inequality affect higher education? The theoretical paradigm that is considered for this question is the Critical paradigm, in which is mainly qualitative and inductive. Critical paradigm is appropriate to answer this particular question because it involves inductive reasoning that begins from a specific observation to a more generalize. The paradigm also looks at how people are at a disadvantage when it comes to obtaining a higher education and incorporates observations and interviews that cultivate a conversation and the interviewee’s reflection. By interviewing people in different social classes and asking how it affects their education, researchers are able to identify the affects social class has on higher education.
Student achievement is consistently at the forefront of education. It has become the driving force and reason as to why researchers and educational scholars seek to find professional revisions that can be performed to increase student performance. If it is revising curriculums, rewriting textbooks, or increasing resources, researchers are seeking a strategy to better enhance how students succeed. They investigate diligently and strategically in order to find a connection between societal features and student learning. Socioeconomic factors, such as family income level, parents ' level of education, race and gender, all influence the quality and availability of education as well as the ability of education to improve life circumstances (Jennifer, 2012). Students who are concerned with competing with other students in fashion and acceptance do not view education as a priority. When students are being told that they will never be better than what their parents are, especially if their parents dropped out of school and never succeeded, they do not view education as a necessity. The likelihood of a student excelling in spite of their ethnicity and upbringing has been a continuous question of concern. Yet, many professionals have argued that even though these factors are prevalent in students’ lives, they do not have the greatest impact on student achievement.
Social class is a division of a society based on social and economic status which can include levels of wealth, success, power of authority, and influence. Status is can be defined or grouped having common economic, cultural, or political interests.
“If it doesn’t fit, you must acquit.” Those words were the famous phrase spoke by Johnnie Cochran, one of the defense attorneys, in the case of “People of the State of California v. Orenthal James Simpson.” This eminent motto marked a key turning point in what is known as the most publicized criminal trial in American history. This case brought about many social issues in the country and the American Criminal Justice system. Of the many social topics raised by the case, a few that are most imperative are social class, education, and race.
Thus far the discussions of how race, culture, and socioeconomic status plays a role in education has been a very enlightened one. Up until now I really have never thought about how many things play a part in the education a child receives and how a teacher’s career is also impacted. Like many others I assume, education is something that we all receive and never think about it in great detail. For me going to school each day was just a routine and the end goal was to graduate high school and go onto college, always thinking that it was that easy for all others. Not until now have I discovered that it is not that easy and that there are many obstacles in the way of a good education.
Socioeconomic status plays a key factor in the type of education a child receives today and ultimately functions to keep individuals in the class they are born into. Those who are part of the lower class receive the bare minimum in education with the end goal being blind obedience, while the upper class is educated in a way that encourages self-regulation, individual thought, and creativity. These vast differences in education are no mistake and are put in place for overall control.
Everyone has a story of where they came from, their ancestral heritage, and the class in society in which they were raised. In our journey of self-discovery we experience different events, and encounter people from diverse backgrounds that influence who we are, and aide us in finding our true selves. The many life events and individuals that are encountered from childhood to adulthood have an influence not only on our desire to pursue higher education, but also on our political views. While some are blessed to live a privileged life, face little struggle, and have every opportunity available, others are not so fortunate. Growing up I lived an underprivileged life, where I faced a struggle not only with my socioeconomic status, but also
The book Unequal Childhoods explains a study conducted to prove the significance of social class. Annette Lareau presents the study highlighting two primary ways of parenting that ultimately affect how successful the child becomes as they transition into adulthood. These styles of parenting include Concerted Cultivation which is where parents put through kids through structured activities, and Accomplishment of Natural Growth which is emphasized through freedom and directives. While both styles of parenting have their benefits and their weaknesses, the educational system of the United States is built predominantly on Concerted Cultivation and middle class values, which in turn may negatively affect how children prepare for their transitions into adulthood. This imbalance in education can put students farther ahead and at the same time neglect children who don’t have the resources they need to keep up with the other students. There are a multitude of variables involved with helping students reach their full potential and become successful. Some of the big factors to a student’s success include the student 's socioeconomic background, how they “fit” into the educational system, how strong their relationships are with other people, and their ability to access resources. Creating an education that can accommodate students from all different backgrounds will empower students to reach their full potential.
A good education is vital in succeeding within many industries in the UK, from Business to Medicine, Politics to Art. It unfortunately does not come as a surprise that only 58.6% of students attained 5 or more GCSE’s at grades A* to C (Department for Education 2012). In comparison, albeit falling this year on previous years, 94.4% of students in private schools attained the same results (The Independent 2012a). Following the recent recession, Social mobility has begun to decline and is lower today than it was thirty years ago. It is now less likely that a child of parents in a low-income bracket will rise to the top-income bracket than it was in
Education still remains the institution that indorses equality of opportunities in America society as the textbook explains. Even though education diminishes inequality among individuals with different backgrounds, inequality still exists in the sense that not everyone who graduates from high school has the same opportunity to attend college. Individuals born into wealthy family will have more opportunities in attending college compared to someone born to a poor family. Although, opportunities are more limited in America, having education will compensate those that do well in school by rewarding them with life opportunities. Social class, race, and gender play a major role for education success, experiences, and outcomes.
Education and schooling in the United States is an interesting concept. I have always suspected that there are disparities between the quality of education a student receives, and the outside influences that act upon the student in both positive and negative ways. I was fortunate enough during my academic career that I had parents and a social situation that allowed some of the best opportunities for a good education. In the course of events I was afforded the opportunity to attend a private school, get money for a college education via the Army, and always had parents that were involved with my education, ensuring that I meet their expectations. As I look at the education system as a whole in our country, a commonality is seen the socioeconomic (SES) status of a student and the quality of education they receive. I saw this in my own perspective knowing that by attending a private school, I was being offered an education that other peers might not have. However, I also believe that a person’s individual drive and family involvement play a vital role in the education system as well. I know many students that attended the same school as I did, but without a good family structure or involvement, that failed academically in school. On the other side of the spectrum, I also know students that came from disadvantaged schools but had a good amount of family involvement and personal accountability in their own academic careers. These students succeeded, where many of
Socioeconomic status is often determined as a combination of education, income and occupation. Depending on the social class an individual is in, it affects the power,privileges, and care they are receiving. When looking at lower class, it shows a greater percentage rate of problems that rise in that category. One seemingly growing issue that is seen more in the lower class than any other social class is how many individuals are affected by the HIV/AIDS virus due to unstable living conditions. Though there are many cases of people that have contracted the virus in the other following classes, there is a disproportionately higher rate in the lower class.
Social Class and Education”. It opens by discussing research conducted in the 1960’s in an effort to identify factors contributing to differences in the academic achievement of Whites and Blacks (Banks & Banks, 2013). Researchers hypothesized that the achievement gaps were mainly the result of disparities in school resources and characteristics, but found that there is a high correlation between achievement and socioeconomic status (SES) (Banks & Banks, 2013). Furthermore, attention is drawn to the class stratification which exists in our educational system and works to maintain inequality through exclusion strategies such as ability grouping and tracking (Banks & Banks, 2013). Evidence of the correlation between social class and
Social class has a major influence over the success and experience of young people in education; evidence suggests social class affects educational achievement, treatment by teachers and whether a young person is accepted into higher education. “34.6 per cent of pupils eligible for free school meals (FSM) achieved five or more A*-C grades at GCSE or equivalent including English and mathematics GCSEs, compared to 62.0 per cent of all other pupils” (Attew, 2012). Pupils eligible for FSM are those whose families earn less than £16,000 a year (Shepherd, J. Sedghi, A. and Evans, L. 2012). Thus working-class young people are less likely to obtain good GCSE grades than middle-class and upper-class young people.
That a student’s social class origin impacts on their learning outcomes is self-evident across much of the developed world, with entrenched disparities in academic achievement that are inversely correlated with family income (Snook, 2009:3, Argy, 2007:para 3, Reay, 2006:289, Nash, 2003:179-180).