Social comparison theory expresses that individuals want to raise themselves by contrasting themselves with others. Social comparison theory proposed that people consistently evaluate themselves and they do this by comparing themselves to others (Festinger, 1954). Festinger (1954) hypothesized that people evaluate themselves by comparing their opinions of their attributes to those respective opinions that others hold. This will correlate with both internalization of thin ideal media and body comparisons of media figures and other peers, and how this impacts body image.
The participating students were observed for a period of two days. It took place during reading class. The observation had to be during the beginning of class until
The information on social referencing is found on page 334 of the textbook. When I was in elementary school, I would often compare myself to others. This is known as social comparison (Levine & Munsch). One way I would do this is if someone made an A on the test, and I made a B or a C, I wouldn’t feel good enough. It didn’t help that my dad would often make me strive for A’s and get onto me when I didn’t quite make a good grade. Information on social comparison can be found on page 377 of the textbook. During adolescence, I was not part of any popular crowd. I was sort of in a small clique, which is a small group of friends that spend time together and are close (Levine & Munsch). During middle school, I was frequently bullied, which is when
There was one method that was used to study this question. For all the students who participated in
To effectively achieve the goals of political activities, everyone in the group should avoid social comparison and keep his or her original ideas. Social comparison results in people trying to stay in tune with the group. Surowiecki announces that “It means that people are constantly comparing themselves to everyone else with an eye toward maintaining their relative position within the group”(Surowiecki 479) Since all the people depend on each other for existence, it is inevitable to comparing themselves to others and caring about what others think of them. People with unique ideas which are against most of the group members’ beliefs, are more likely to be regarded as aliens and excluded from the group. To “maintain their relative position within the group” and to gain acceptance from other group members,
Another study was conducted the same year which included 40 males that aged between 20-50. The conditions if they wanted to apply were that they weren’t a high school or college student and they had different jobs ranging from being a “professional worker” to a factory worker. Participant were payed $4.50 which 14 loaves of bread or 22 beers could be bought at that time. Before the experiment started, during the time that the experimenter explained the procedure, teacher and learner, both were together. After explaining the procedure, the experimenter chooses which one would be the teacher and the learner. Although it was chosen by drawing lots, the teacher was always the one who participated outside of the study and to be payed for it while
Social Promotion is defined the practice promoting a child to the next grade level regardless of skill mastery in the belief that it will promote self-esteem. According the the Center for Development & Learning, it is estimated that as many as 15% of American students are held back each year, and 30% – 50% of students in the US are retained at least once before ninth grade. Social promotion advocates claim that holding students back and forcing them to repeat a grade causes them to have a “negative” education experience. I for one disagree with this theory.
The experiment took place in students’ respective discussion sections and all students are assigned to both blocked and interleaved study. Once in the discussion sections, students were instructed to go to the experiment website (http://www.cogfog.com/EG/KBOriginalW17/) and follow the instructions on the website. Students were prompted to enter their identification number (PID) to ensure the students get credit for completing the experiment, and then they were directed to demographic questionnaire where students were asked to identify their gender (65.38% females, 33.33% males, 1.282% abstained), age (M=19.95), educational level (28.21% high school graduates, 57.69% currently in some college but without degree, 8.974% associates degree, and 5.128% bachelors degree), and fluency in English (92.31% fluent, 7.692% not fluent).
Our sample was the 12th grade SL Psychology class of Mr.George, which had a total of 17 participants - 14 girls and 3 boys. All participants were given the same materials, instructions, and stop and starting times.
The current study set out to determine how different social comparison patterns affected performance attainment. An empirical study was conducted via the use of a simulated organization. The observations of the empirical study were analyzed in a quantitative format. Self-regulatory factors and the impact of social comparative influences were analyzed. The analysis were conducted by a 3 × 4 analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA are very useful and “assumes that the scores on the quantitative outcome variable are normally distributed” (Warner, 2013, p.54). The ANOVA test of this particular set of gathered data investigated the scores received with “social comparison as the between-subjects variable and phase of assessment as a repeated-measures
Like if Suzie did really well speaking in front of the class and had a positive response from her classmates and teacher, the next time she has to speak in front of them she will be more relaxed because she now believes it was perceived well. Students and adults use others reactions to guide us on what we should or should not do in everyday situations. Most people and students want to be socially accepted from their peers. This acceptance guides their thinking and beliefs.
Researchers conducted an experiment that addressed whether upward or downward social comparisons could affect people’s prosocial behavior towards a comparison target. In other words they wanted to see if it would cause individuals to change their actions when it was intended for them to help others, or ones desire to help others with no expectation of reward. Since social comparison is hypothesized to be an evolutionary adaptive process that is not predominately seen in humans but other species as well. The way to separate the two would be to focus on one being the upward comparison that transpires when a target of comparison is someone who is either
It was around nature in which the participants had access to two bridges. One of them was a rickety bridge that is located above the Capilano River, British Columbia in Canada. The second bridge was a solid one in which it was not any risk of occurring calamity. Both bridges were the strategy points to initiate the study. The study was divided into three experiments. In the first part of the experiment, the male participants were 85 participants in total. Each one of them needed to fulfill two formalities as conditions for the validity of the study. The age of the men was between 18 and 35 years old, and they did not have to have a female companion. They must be alone. Apart from them, there were a woman and man who made the connections. The mission of both especially of the woman was to stand up in the middle of the bridge and asked the men who passed by to help her with her psychological project. Most of the male participants were willing to help her. Even though they were at risk, they did not hesitate to be part of the
The experimenter chose 22 elementary participants with the combination of different gender. The experimenter chose to have different gender for the participants so that there will be no biases among the gender of the children involved. The experimenter divided the participants into two groups to be the experimental and the control group. The form of language that was used in this experiment is Filipino so that the participants would clearly understand the story. The tools that were used in this experiment are the form of instruction that will be used is an oral type, this is chosen by the experimenter because oral form of instruction is the easiest way to make communication with the children without any extraneous variables except noise. The experimenter chose this type of instruction instead of a movie because the movie type or visual type of instruction might catch the attention of the participants and might affect the results of the experiment. Another tool that was used in this experiment is the story that will be narrated to the students, “Bakit nangangagat ang putakti”. Lastly is the questionnaire that was distributed to the participants, the
For subproblem 2, the difference in the level of performance of the students in Research I was determined by using the t-test for dependent sample means.