Between 1840 and 1860, the first wave of immigration hit the United States. With the lot of them being German and Irish, they seeked not only economic security and political stability, but a better and newer life. With the Industrial Revolution in full motion, part of these dreams were fulfilled, but arriving in the United States came with much more consequences as well. Though the Irish and Germans had different experiences in the United States, both most definitely faced prejudice from the Nativists.
In response to the Jim Crow laws, a massive stream of over a million African American migrants moved up north and out west during the 1910’s and 1920's, in search for high paying jobs during World War One and the chance to escape disenfranchisement and racism. However, when many blacks arrived up north they were introduced to new obstacles. Many migrants found themselves segregated into the ghettos of Chicago, Detroit, and Harlem.
The opportunities of racial minorities such as the Chinese or African Americans different from those of European immigrants because diversity played a big role in the quality of urban setting. When the industrial revolution happen a lot of immigrant were in search for better economic opportunity, so as Chinese left their home countries due to poverty and famine, cities were the first place they settle down in, making their way to the US they had great opportunity, from owning their own business, opportunity to socialize, opportunity of establishing rotating lending pools, and one of the thing was that they were able to support one another. Moreover, like the Chinese immigrant, European immigrant were also in such for better economic opportunity and religious freedom. Compared to Chinese and African American immigrants, European immigrant had better opportunities for example, European immigrants were considerably older, had higher household incomes, and they were more educated though they were less likely to participate in the labor force. If they did participate in the labor force, they participate at a lower rate than the overall immigrants. A big difference in opportunities that European immigrant had from other immigrants was that you would see them take employment in management, business, science, and arts occupations and they would less likely be employed in occupation such as natural resources, construction, maintenance occupations, production, transportation, and
Concentration of immigrant populations was highest in four of America’s largest cities; New York, Boston, Pittsburgh, and Chicago. Five out of every six Irish and Russian immigrants lived in a city. Three out of four Italian and Hungarian immigrants came to America with very little money to buy farms or farming equipment. Others settled in cities because farming in America was very different from that of Europe. Some immigrants, such as the Slavs, simply came to America too late to acquire land. Jewish and Irish preferred the city because it provided a chance to worship with other Jewish or Irish without persecution.
Modern society is striving for every person, regardless of race, gender, or nationality to be treated as if they are identical. Activist can publish all the articles they want in an attempt to make everyone equal, but that does not make it so. The front line in a combat situation is one place where women just do not belong.
Employment wasn't offering an answer to the undesirable living conditions due to the Irish's lack of experience and skills. There was an abundant need for unskilled labor in America but because there were so many people looking for work, the wages remained ultimately low. Pay was often so low that Irish families would supplement their income by selling milk in the cities (242). Because the Irish portrayed an undesirable, under-standard, and unskilled image, job-seekers would commonly see a "NINA" (No Irish need apply) sign in the windows of what could have been prospective employers.
Irish and German immigrants moved to the use in pursuit of economic progress, and began to compete against black people in the labor market. Irish as expected would be discriminated against. As time went on, Irish started to distance themselves from the black people, by joining riots against the black men.
Around 1914 to 1920, over 500,000 African Americans had gathered their belongings and embarked on a journey to the North. World War I and the economic boom that accompanied it created the conditions that made the entrance of black migrants into northern industries possible. However, until then European immigrants had been arriving at an annual rate that surpassed the North’s total black population, thus providing employers with
In the mid-1920s, there was an even bigger increase in Irish immigrants to Chicago. Due to this increase in population, they moved up financially than other Europeans ethnicities. Instead of residing in lower-class areas, they began to disperse outwards. The areas where the Irish decided to move to were middle-class and upper-middle-class neighborhoods. Not many other ethnicities lived in these areas because they were not as financially secure as the Irish had become due to all the work they had received over the years. The neighborhoods the Irish lived in now were mainly in the Near North Side. Areas like, Lincoln Park, Lake View, and Uptown Areas (Cutler, 1973, 49-54).
The immigrants from abroad and the African-Americans both left their homelands of restricted opportunities and sought to find better ones. The African-Americans came without proper clothing and skills, unaware of the future obstacles ahead. Their environment and surroundings were significantly different in the South than the lively cities in the North. Before migrating, the African-Americans lives consisted of mainly working in the fields in the blistering, hot sun, or working as servants or tenants for white property owners; they had never laid eyes upon a building or factory. For the immigrants, coming to urban America was an enormous change as well. They were oblivious to the American culture, American politics and economics, and were unable to read or speak English, in most cases. While settling in the northern cities, there were certain harsh conditions that the African Americans along with the immigrants experienced. They both were forced to live with their families in small, unsanitary living spaces due to the intense persecution and racialization from American outsiders. Families in neighborhoods grouped together, and each family member contributed economically to the family income. To relieve these challenges and harsh conditions, both African-American and immigrant groups were obliged to do certain tasks in the new, metropolitan surrounding.
Cities throughout the north and Midwest, riddled with factories, warehouse’s and work areas needed people to fill jobs left by people who were drafted or enlisted into military ranks for World War I. New York had many jobs and opportunities in places such as the pier’s and docks. Detroit had automobile factories with tons of open job opportunities. African American’s flocked to these large urban areas. Also, with the onset of World War I, the creation of
"When once I asked the agent of a notorious Forth Ward alley how many people might be living in it I was told: One hundred and forty families, one hundred Irish, thirty-eight Italians, and two the spoke the German tongue(How the Other Half Lives,p.3). There was not one native born american in the court, or in any of the tenements. The irish were the true cosmopolitan immigrant. All-pervadin, he shares his lodging with perfect impartiality with the Italian, the Greek, and the "Dutchman," yielding on to sheer for of numbers, and objects equally to them all. The city maps were colorized for each nationality, if you were to look at a map at that time, Irish were mostly on the West Side and the Germans were mostly on the East Side. Mixed in where Italian, who pushed there way up, where "Little Italy" came to be. The less aggressive, the Russian and Polish Jew, are filling the tenements of the old Seventh Ward to the river front, while disputing with the Italians, over every foot of avaibility on Mulberry St. "The italian and the poor Jew rise only by compulsion. The Chinaman does not rise at all; here, as at home, he simply remains stationary. The Irishman's genius runs to public affairs rather than domestic life; wherever he is mustered in force the saloon is the gorgeous centre of political activity(How the Other half lives,p.25)." The germans
Over time the Irish and Germans were finally accepted and considered part of the “American society”. By the time the next big wave of immigration occurred, the Irish and Germans were considered the old guard as opposed to the newcomers. The changing ethnic composition was critical and the Irish as well as the
You have a dream. Do not let your dreams be dreams. Althea Gibson and Barbara Jordan both had a dream. Some people thought it would never happen, but with some perseverance and determination, they made their dreams come true. Although these two may seam alike, they also have some key differences. According to the articles Althea Gibson and Barbara C. Jordan, it is evident that they were both very successful African American women with the odds against them. On the other hand, both had different achievements.
Most northern white people and black people lived in different neighborhoods and attended different schools. This segregation resulted from African Americans resided in distinctive neighborhoods, because of low incomes well as wanting to live near other African Americans. It also caused them to be isolated within the cities and towns they lived in. Many blacks separated themselves not as a matter of choice or custom. Landlords were not fond of renting to black people and often