Social Learning Theory

1741 WordsJul 8, 20187 Pages
Akers and Sellers (2013) has stated that social learning theory is an expanded theory of differential association processes and improves it with differential reinforcement and other principles of the behavior theory. They added classical conditioning (the sharpening of involuntary reflex behavior); discriminative stimuli (internal stimuli that lead to signals for behavior); schedules of reinforcement (rewards and punishment ratio following behavioral feedback); and other theories of behavior (Akers & Sellers, 2013). Akers’ social learning theory’s basic premise is that deviant behavior is learned. The theory has four components. First is definitions, where a person considers his behavior is normal. Definitions can be general or specific.…show more content…
Differential reinforcement was subdivided into social and non-social reinforcement. Method The research method used for this study was a survey distributed as a self-report questionnaire. Data were collected by giving the questionnaire to 3,065 male and female adolescents attending grades 7 through 12 in three midwestern states. The sample design consisted of two parts. First, schools were chosen within a participating school district, which was representative for size and location within the area. Second, two or three classrooms per grade level were chosen among the general enrollment classes. A small subset was also added from applicants who volunteered from the districts who were interviewed a few weeks before the questionnaire was administered (Akers, Lanza-Kaduce, & Radiosevich, 1979). The dependent variables consisted of abstinence-use of alcohol and marijuana measured by a six-point scale ranging from nearly every day to never. Abuse users were measured by combining responses to a question where they experience on more than one day using drugs or alcohol. Independent variables consisted of the main concepts of social learning which were imitation, differential association, definitions, and differential reinforcement. The statistical method used to analyze the data was multiple regression techniques (Akers, Lanza-Kaduce, & Radiosevich, 1979). Results Test results showed that most of the independent variables were positively related in the strength of the
Open Document