Social Problems and Issues in Pakistan

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Ethnic Pressures Pakistan's 180 million people are divided into five main ethnic groups: Punjabi (44.7 percent), Pashtun (15.4 percent), Sindhi (14.1 percent), Muhajirs (7.6 percent), and Balochi (3.6 percent).The country is divided into four provinces: Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as North-West Frontier Province, or NWFP). In addition, there are the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan-administered Kashmir, and Gilgit-Baltistan. Historically, the dominant role played by Punjab, which is home to over 55 percent of the population and provides the bulk of the army and bureaucracy, has caused much resentment among the other three provinces. There had been little support for the…show more content…
Today, as population pressures mount, a surging youth population is expected to test leaders' ability to provide for their people while ushering in needed reforms (roughly 58 percent of Pakistan's population is under twenty-four, according to the UN Population Division). High illiteracy rates, poor access to education and healthcare, and widening gender and socioeconomic gaps are expected to add to the state's challenges, while fueling the narrative of militant groups seeking to use public disenfranchisement as broader recruiting tools. According to the United Nations, more than 60 percent of Pakistanis live on less than $2 a day, making Pakistan one of the world's poorest states. Social Indicators Health Life Expectancy at Birth: 67 [Source: World Bank, 2008] Education (Literacy rate by gender) Adult Female Literacy Rate: 40 Adult Male Literacy Rate: 66. Adult Male Literacy Rate: 66.8 [Source: UNESCO, 2008] Poverty Percentage of Pakistanis living below $2/day: 60.3 [Source: UN Human Development Report, 2007] Although Pakistan is governed by a parliamentary form of civilian representation, the country's strongest institutions have long been its army and primary intelligence service, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). The constant tug between a powerful army and a weak civilian government has impeded social development, as military rulers have frequently put more resources toward guarding

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