In Omi and Winant, Racial Formation the topic of what race is brought up. They bring up the question of "What is race?" Which lead to the use of pseudo-science to justify the physical difference that were observed. Race is later defined as a social construct which is shaped by broader societal forces.
Multiculturalism can be defined as the promotion of the mixture of different cultural, religious and linguistic group which include the idea of equal respect toward differences and acceptance of the contribution of immigrants to a country (Zanca, 2015). It has been considered as a controversial topic which has been debated from the middle of the 20th century especially in European countries and in Australia. In discussing to what extent should cultural differences be accepted in a multicultural society, many agree that multiculturalism should be accepted if there is acceptance, tolerance of diversity and the new migrants learn to language of the majority and bring economic benefits to their new country. On other hand, it is argued that multiculturalism should not be accepted because of the negative influence that it can bring if there is no immigration control, acceptance of diversity as well as stereotyping of the minorities.
Structural or institutional racism is formed by the social, economic, political or educational forces that foster discriminatory outcomes or give preference to members of one group over the other deriving its genesis from the concept of race. The biological fact for the race has been invalidated by biologists, but the social aspect of it is formed by the community. The physical traits still possess the meanings of social race identity. It is these social race identities that deliberate placement in the social hierarchy, which dictates the access to or denial of privileges and or power. Assignment of status based on skin color character has evolved to a complex social structure that promotes power differential between whites and people of color. The use of physical features in classifying individual, institutional groups trace its history from the extended encounter between the Europeans and non-European back in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. In the United States, the cognitive dissonance between values and beliefs of the human rights, liberty, democracy and equity founders alongside with the practice of Africans ' enslavement. The move made Mexicans a foreign minority in their land was determined by the classification of citizens by their characters as inferior and not worthy of any entitlement. The concept of race has been widely used to institutionalize benefits to one group of people and deny the same benefits to other people.
Martin Luther King believed all people should be equal. Though it may be difficult to realize this today, racism has had an enormous affect on the United States.From the 1800’s up to 2013, Americans have had many stages of biased ideas and or opinions towards other races. The idea of one race having superiority over another race has affected the United States in many ways today, leading the country towards equal rights and equality among all races.
Multiculturalism has split our society. Political correctness is stifling free speech”, states the Ukip manifesto. Their “Pocket Guide to Immigration” promises to “end support for multiculturalism and promote one, common British culture”. After attracting some negative publicity, it has disappeared.
Racism has many causes. One example of racism is the kidnapping and murder of Emmett Till in Money, Mississippi while visiting some of his family down south. Emmett was brutally murdered after an accusation that suggested he flirted with a young, local white woman four days earlier, his body was found barbed to a 75 pound cotton gin on the banks of the Tallahatchie River by a local fisherman. The brother and the husband of the white woman were found not guilty in their trial even though the jury had plenty of evidence and testimonies against them. If racism continues to progress the way it is the US might be faced with another tragedy, like we had in
It is significant that multiculturalism is a policy that recognises, and endorses, cultural diversity, not non-racism (Van Krieken, Habibis, Smith, Hutchins, Haralambos, & Holborn 2006).
It is argued that ‘beliefs, religious, anti-religious or a-religious may contribute to defining a person’s identity’ (Stuyfbergen J., 2011). Bearing this in mind, it can be understood why governments in the past have placed significant importance in understanding and embracing multiculturalism in their countries as it promotes diversity among the community. Using the Dutch, which the world has long looked upon as ‘the very model of a modern, multicultural society’ (Theil S., Vencat E., Mcquire S. and Power G., 2006), as an example, the ‘open and liberal nation prided upon itself on a history of taking in all comers, be they Indonesian or Turkish, African or Chinese’ (ibid.). Even in our current day, ‘Germany is the world’s second most popular immigrant destination, after United States’ (Malik K., 2015). In Australia, multiculturalism is also growing and flourishing consistently. Less than 40 years after the burial of the White Australia Policy, the 2011 census revealed that Australia has become ‘a melting pot of races, with 1 in 4 Australians arriving as migrants, and 1 in 8 having Asian Ancestry, revealing a land of many cultures, religions and ancestries’ (Tim Colbatch Economics E., 2012). Additionally, in Australia, cultural norms are slowly being abandoned, as Christianity has now fallen from being the largest proportion of people
The years around this trail had some major news surrounding this time period. This is when racism was at an all time high. African American individuals were being place as blame for every little thing according to their race. The author Franklin (2002) that throughout early American history, as Europeans came in contact with people different from themselves (i.e., Native Americans and Africans) they adopted the assumption of cultural superiority (Smedley, 1993). This type of issue was extremely popular back in the mid 1990’s for some reason. I cannot grasp the reason for having high racism, however, this is what individuals were feeling at the time.
Many americans and african americans believe that there is a lot of racism in their daily lives. It makes you think, how much racism is still in the world? Over the decades there has been many changes, but still more to come. Many people still go through racism everyday. Americans say we have made progress but have a lot to do.
I never noticed racism until it happened. I never that the majority of my best friends were black. I never felt that I was out of place or any different from them. I never thought things would change; we would be best friends forever. But, that wasn't the case. Things did change, and they changed very quickly. I never noticed racism because what reason would I have to think that anything or anyone was different.
History has proven that racism is much more than an ideology but it’s an integral part of the human evolution (For example: Slavery, Religious conflicts in middle east, the recognition of women’s rights etc…). We can identify multiple forms of racism which humans were and are still confronted to (sexism, skin color, the appearance, religious,
In To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, racism is presented in various different characters and situations. As a prevalent theme today,both in real life and in literature, it is important for the reader to understand and recognize racism and it's impact on society. One specific example of racism, and it's effect on family situations such as Tom robinson’s, is after the trial from which tom was falsely accused and sentenced to jail, he tried to escape and got killed, people all over maycomb were gossiping over his death, one woman said:”Did you hear about?...No? Well, they say he was runnin’ fit to beat lightnin’....’ …… Just shows you, that Robinson boy was legally married, they say he kept himself clean, went to church and all that,
The world is viewed through the prisms of our own stereotypes. But how these stereotypes evolve is paved by our predecessors. History is commonly conceptualised as radicle events of mass proportions, the wars, the gassings, the mass extermination; however it’s the small, seemingly harmless acts, the words, the conventionalisations, the silent inaction that has the greatest power. Racism has been institutionalised. Discrimination, oppression and alienation of subordinate groups is the lifeblood of western cultural history. The socialisation of racism is an ongoing and forever irresolute problem that came to the forefront of the world stage during the Black power struggles of the 1950s. Seen as one of the most enduring struggles in the United
Today, racism is one of the most commonplace issues amongst western societies. It is the force which keeps humanity behind and the obstruction that prevents humanity from moving forward. Based on recent events, discrimination is more severe now than during the peak of the civil rights movement. Racial tension among blacks and whites is most apparent in the southern region of the United States. To lessen the impact racism has on the prosperity of the people, the investigation of bigotry and racism is imperative.