Social Variation Of American English

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There are many social variation in American English, they are associated with age, gender, sexual orientation and ethnicity. Recently, several linguistic trends to investigate the speech of women, one of these is vocal fry. Vocal fry is speech that is very low pitched and creaky sounding shaped by a slow movement of the vocal cords. It considered to be a voice disorder (Tamasi, P132). Also people tend to have a lot of negative attitude towards vocal fry.
Creaky voice is been used by movie star Mae West in a film from 1933 (Tamasi, P132). Since the 1960s, the vocal fry, falsetto and modal have been put into the three lowest vocal register. Vocal fry is be notice in recent decade, so people might not know when it started to use, and complete history of it yet. However, we know it had been added in to music, such as pop singer Britney Spears, used vocal fry as a way to reach low notes and as style. Later, more and more music stars and women doing it. People can heard vocal fry in music, radio stations, and television shows (Fessenden). People use vocal fry increasing nowadays. The prescriptive grammar does not say about this item, because it does not relate to grammar. It relates to voice pitch and speech pathology. Is it is vocal fry consider to be a speech pathology? In one hand, “Originally it was studied as a speech pathology, something that occurred due to injury or some sort of congenital defect. Today we know it can be done as an affectation as well,” Klofstad
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