Essay on Sociological Perspectives to Understand Society

2017 Words9 Pages
The main aim of sociology is to seek an understanding or explanation as to how society functions or operates. There are numerous sociological theories, some dating back as early as the 19th century, these include Structural and Marxist Functionalism and Social Action theories. Throughout the years these perspectives have gradually been modernised due to the changes that have occurred in society. In this assignment I shall be looking at the key theories of the more notable exponents of the different sociological perspectives from pre-industrialisation times to the modern age and their interpretation of how society works.
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Also he believed that society should be studied from a scientific objective. He argued that sociology should be based on the methodology of natural science and claimed that this would result in positive science of society. (Giddens 1997)
Talcott Parsons was an American sociologist whose main contribution was to add to the view of society the notion that functional relationships within and between institutions contributed to harmony in the system thus society involves at least a level of integration between the parts. Parsons stated that the central value of the system of a society provides the basic glue that shapes and holds the society together and therefore provides the base for integration. He continued in saying that members of society share the same goals, thus persons may have different roles and perform different functions, but once they all agree on the values that underpin the goal to be attained, they are likely to have equal commitment to attain the common goal. (Baert, Carreira da Silva 2010) According to Parsons, society is based on a value consensus, which is a set of agreed goals, values and roles that standardise and determine behaviour. This value consensus is established and maintained within the institutions of society. Society is therefore a system and has to meet certain
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