Sociological Research : Designs, Methods

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Sociological Research: Designs, Methods

Sociologists use many different designs and methods to study society and social behavior. Most sociological research involves ethnography, or “field work” designed to depict the characteristics of a population as fully as possible.
Three popular social research designs (models) are

Cross‐sectional, in which scientists study a number of individuals of different ages who have the same trait or characteristic of interest at a single time

Longitudinal, in which scientists study the same individuals or society repeatedly over a specified period of time

Cross‐sequential, in which scientists test individuals in a cross‐sectional sample more than once over a specified period of time
Six of the most popular sociological research methods (procedures) are the case study, survey, observational, correlational, experimental, and cross‐cultural methods, as well as working with information already available.

Case study research

In case study research, an investigator studies an individual or small group of individuals with an unusual condition or situation. Case studies are typically clinical in scope. The investigator (often a clinical sociologist) sometimes uses self‐report measures to acquire quantifiable data on the subject. A comprehensive case study, including a long‐term follow‐up, can last months or years.
On the positive side, case studies obtain useful information about individuals and small groups. On the negative side, they tend to
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