Sociological Theories Of Global Climate Change

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2. Sociological Theories of Global Climate Change
Sociological knowledge on global climate change has its roots in environmental sociology - a specialty field that developed in reaction to increased social awareness of environmental problems in the 1970s. Environmental sociologists examine and theorize the complex and multifaceted relationship between human beings and their natural environments, including the question: why do social systems tend to exceed their ecological carrying capacities (Nagel et. al., 2010)? Despite its foundational focus on the human-nature nexus, environmental sociologists have only recently turned their research attention to global climate change. There is, however, a great deal that sociologists in general, and
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143). The political economy approach draws its inspiration from the nineteenth-century writing of the Karl Marx and Fredrich Engels. Marx believes the human-nature nexus is inevitable. Because nature is the primary source of human’s means of subsistence. For Marx (2012, p. 148), “The worker can create nothing without nature, without the sensual external world. It is the material on which his labor is realized, in which it is active, from which and by means of which it produces.” So, it can be said that the more the worker, by his labor, extracts the means of subsistence from nature, the more he loses his means of life from the nature in two ways: 1. The nature ceases to be an object belonging to worker’s labor; 2. The nature ceases to be means for the physical subsistence of the worker. In this way, the worker just becomes a servant of the nature: as a worker, and as a physical subject. So, the deprivation of workers is inherently built in the nature of their labor that always favors the owners of the means of production. According to Marx (2012, p. 149), “It is true that labor produces wonderful things for the rich-but for the worker it produces privation. It produces palaces-but for the worker, hovels. It produces beauty-but for the worker, deformity. It replaces labor by machines, but
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