Sociology

2216 Words Oct 5th, 2014 9 Pages
Question 1When and what to eat is a social fact. In most societies, food plays an important part in social life, and Denmark is definitely no exception. Not only is it commonly known when to eat, it is in most cases also given what to eat. A social gathering does nearly always contain a meal which forms the centre of the gathering, and in this case, everybody is supposed to eat the same. The “feeling of socialising” comes from being with other people, eating the same. Durkheim[1] classifies a social fact as manners of acting, thinking and feeling external to the individual, which are invested with a coercive power by virtue of which they exercise control over him.
The individual who chooses to act against this social fact will receive
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Max Weber strongly disagreed with Marx on the theory that changes and history enter from below via human action according to material instincts, instead he argued that all change stems from human decisive action based on their beliefs.
Weber's theory is based in religion, and he argues that capitalism emerged from a change in work ethics due to changes in religion. In “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism”[3] he states that protestants in the first centuries after the reformation in the 16th and 17th centuries showed economic rationality. The explanation is found looking into the practices of the protestant sects inspired by the French theologian Jean Calvin which were widely spread in the countries with the most advanced capitalism in those centuries. According to their belief, God was omniscient, and everybody was born predestined. Unlike the Catholics, the Calvinist could not buy a ticket to heaven (indulgences), but they needed to believe that they had been predestined by God to go to Paradise. Doubt was an ill omen; it was everybody's duty to have faith in being amongst the chosen ones, and to avoid doubts people would have to work as hard and disciplined as possible.
These new, hard-working capitalists differed in one important way from earlier capitalists, because capitalism had always been there, but where traditional capitalists had worked only to gain profit, in the modern capitalist

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